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COVID-19: travel health notice for all travellers

Nepal travel advice

Latest updates: Health – editorial update

Last updated: April 5, 2024 07:23 ET

On this page

Safety and security, entry and exit requirements, laws and culture, natural disasters and climate, nepal - exercise a high degree of caution.

Exercise a high degree of caution in Nepal due to the fragile political and security situation.

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Petty theft is common, particularly near tourist sites, on buses and in hotel rooms.

Take particular care when walking around Kupandol, Sanepa and Thamel, popular tourist spots in Kathmandu, where pickpocketing is common.

  • Do not leave personal belongings unattended. Armed robberies, particularly of solo trekkers, occur occasionally
  • Exercise caution in and around Kathmandu and other cities
  • Do not travel after dark

Festival season

There is a significant increase in crime, including thefts, purse and bag snatchings, pickpocketing and break-ins, during the festival season, which extends from September to November. Maintain a high level of personal security awareness and ensure that your personal belongings and your passports are secure.

Women’s safety

Women are vulnerable to harassment and verbal abuse. Dress conservatively, particularly in remote areas.

Female tourists travelling alone are more at risk of violent attacks.

Advice for women travellers

Political tensions

While Nepal continues its transition to a stable democracy, the political situation remains fragile and tensions can increase with little notice.

Acts of violence

Small-scale, politically-motivated attacks occasionally occur, especially in Kathmandu. Past attacks have led to injuries and sometimes caused deaths. Foreigners have not been targeted. Further attacks are likely.


Political protests are common in Nepal and sometimes result in violence. Transport and public services may be disrupted at short notice.

Politically motivated protests have been particularly volatile in Kathmandu as well as in Nepal’s southern region bordering India, which has at times resulted in supply shortages and affected border crossings.

Even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent at any time. They can also lead to disruptions to traffic and public transportation.

  • Avoid areas where demonstrations and large gatherings are taking place
  • Follow the instructions of local authorities
  • Monitor local media for information on ongoing demonstrations

Mass gatherings (large-scale events)

General strikes (locally referred to as bandhs) are a popular form of political expression and can occur on short notice throughout the country. Such strike action can affect access to services. While bandhs are usually peaceful, riots and violence are possible. During a bandh, businesses and roads may close and transportation services may be unavailable or severely disrupted.

Avoid travelling on public transportation during or immediately preceding bandhs, as tourists have been injured. Transportation to and from airports throughout Nepal could be affected. Army and police checkpoints are frequent, especially at night.

Follow the advice of local authorities and respect curfews and roadblocks.

Trekking and mountain climbing

Many popular trekking trails ascend higher than 5,500 metres.

A number of hikers and guides have been stranded, injured or killed while trekking. You may experience acute mountain sickness at high altitudes and should be well informed on possible hazards in the high mountains.

Drops in temperature and changes in weather conditions, including blizzards and avalanches can occur suddenly in mountainous regions at any time of year.

If you intend to trek:

  • never do so alone and always hire an experienced guide from a reputable company
  • buy travel insurance that includes helicopter rescue and medical evacuation
  • ensure that your physical condition is good enough to meet the challenges of your activity
  • ensure that you're properly equipped and well informed about weather and other conditions that may pose a hazard
  • inform a family member or friend of your itinerary, including when you expect to be back to camp
  • know the symptoms of acute altitude sickness, which can be fatal
  • obtain detailed information on trekking routes or ski slopes before setting out and do not venture off marked trails or slopes

Emergency services such as evacuations and rescues from remote areas are available but can be hindered by:

  • the lack of immediate payment to helicopter rescue services
  • a positive response from clients of their insurance companies
  • limited access to regular phone service in many trekking areas

There have been helicopter rescue scams in the past. Ensure that you are dealing with reputable helicopter companies. Check with your trekking agency for updates on the security situation in the area.

Trekkers’ Information Management System

All trekkers must purchase a trekkers’ information management system (TIMS) card from one of the following entities:

  • the  Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal
  • the  Nepal Tourism Board
  • an authorized trekking company

National park permit

You must obtain a national park entry permit before entering official trekking regions or routes such as those in the Annapurna, Everest and Langtang regions.

Permits may be obtained from the national tourism board after arrival in Kathmandu or Pokhara.

More about trekking permits - Trekking Agencies’ Association of Nepal

Organize white-water rafting excursions through reputable agencies only.

Due to an energy shortage, electric power cuts, termed “load shedding,” are a year-round occurrence. They occur frequently for short periods and without advance notice. 

Public transportation

Most public buses are often poorly maintained and accidents involving buses, often causing injuries and fatalities, are common.

Avoid travelling on overnight buses.

Tourist buses are generally safe.

Boat accidents are common due to the overloading and poor maintenance of vessels. Do not board vessels that appear overloaded or unfit, especially where there are strong currents.

Road safety

Exercise caution when travelling by road as road conditions and driving standards are poor and traffic laws are not enforced.

Drivers often drive at excessive speed and often do not yield right-of-way to pedestrians.

Many mountain and hill roads, which can be hazardous even in the best weather, are intermittently impassable during the monsoon season due to landslides.

Traffic is congested in the Kathmandu Valley.

Landmines and unexploded ordnance constitute a risk in parts of the country, including in some trekking areas. Follow the advice of local authorities, and only travel on well-used roads and paths.

We do not make assessments on the compliance of foreign domestic airlines with international safety standards.

Information about foreign domestic airlines

Every country or territory decides who can enter or exit through its borders. The Government of Canada cannot intervene on your behalf if you do not meet your destination’s entry or exit requirements.

We have obtained the information on this page from the Nepalese authorities. It can, however, change at any time.

Verify this information with the  Foreign Representatives in Canada .

Entry requirements vary depending on the type of passport you use for travel.

Before you travel, check with your transportation company about passport requirements. Its rules on passport validity may be more stringent than the country’s entry rules.

Regular Canadian passport

Your passport must be valid for at least 6 months beyond the date you expect to leave Nepal.

Passport for official travel

Different entry rules may apply.

Official travel

Passport with “X” gender identifier

While the Government of Canada issues passports with an “X” gender identifier, it cannot guarantee your entry or transit through other countries. You might face entry restrictions in countries that do not recognize the “X” gender identifier. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Other travel documents

Different entry rules may apply when travelling with a temporary passport or an emergency travel document. Before you leave, check with the closest foreign representative for your destination.

Useful links

  • Foreign Representatives in Canada
  • Canadian passports

Tourist visa: required Business visa: required (only issued in Nepal) Student visa: required

You can purchase a tourist visa, valid for up to 60 days, at:

  • a Nepalese embassy or consulate
  • the Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu
  • some border crossings, upon arrival

You will need to supply a recent passport-size photo. Ensure that you have the necessary amount of funds (Canadian and U.S. dollars are accepted) with you if you wish to obtain a visa upon arrival. Check with the closest Nepalese embassy or consulate for the latest visa fees.

Tourist Visa - Department of Immigration, Government of Nepal

Visa overstays

Overstaying your visa is an offence and immigration authorities can detain you until you pay a fine. In addition to fines and detention, overstays can result in a 7-year ban on re-entry.

Travel to Tibet

If you intend to travel to Tibet from Nepal, contact the Chinese embassy in Kathmandu for current entry regulations.

Children and travel

Learn more about travelling with children .

Yellow fever

Learn about potential entry requirements related to yellow fever (vaccines section).

Relevant Travel Health Notices

  • Global Measles Notice - 13 March, 2024
  • COVID-19 and International Travel - 13 March, 2024

This section contains information on possible health risks and restrictions regularly found or ongoing in the destination. Follow this advice to lower your risk of becoming ill while travelling. Not all risks are listed below.

Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic preferably 6 weeks before you travel to get personalized health advice and recommendations.

Routine vaccines

Be sure that your  routine vaccinations , as per your province or territory , are up-to-date before travelling, regardless of your destination.

Some of these vaccinations include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, varicella (chickenpox), influenza and others.

Pre-travel vaccines and medications

You may be at risk for preventable diseases while travelling in this destination. Talk to a travel health professional about which medications or vaccines may be right for you, based on your destination and itinerary. 

Yellow fever   is a disease caused by a flavivirus from the bite of an infected mosquito.

Travellers get vaccinated either because it is required to enter a country or because it is recommended for their protection.

  • There is no risk of yellow fever in this country.

Country Entry Requirement*

  • Proof of vaccination is required if you are coming from or have transited through an airport of a country   where yellow fever occurs.


  • Vaccination is not recommended.
  • Discuss travel plans, activities, and destinations with a health care professional.
  • Contact a designated  Yellow Fever Vaccination Centre  well in advance of your trip to arrange for vaccination.

About Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada * It is important to note that  country entry requirements  may not reflect your risk of yellow fever at your destination. It is recommended that you contact the nearest  diplomatic or consular office  of the destination(s) you will be visiting to verify any additional entry requirements.

There is a risk of hepatitis A in this destination. It is a disease of the liver. People can get hepatitis A if they ingest contaminated food or water, eat foods prepared by an infectious person, or if they have close physical contact (such as oral-anal sex) with an infectious person, although casual contact among people does not spread the virus.

Practise  safe food and water precautions and wash your hands often. Vaccination is recommended for all travellers to areas where hepatitis A is present.

Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that can cause swelling of the brain.  It is spread to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. Risk is very low for most travellers. Travellers at relatively higher risk may want to consider vaccination for JE prior to travelling.

Travellers are at higher risk if they will be:

  • travelling long term (e.g. more than 30 days)
  • making multiple trips to endemic areas
  • staying for extended periods in rural areas
  • visiting an area suffering a JE outbreak
  • engaging in activities involving high contact with mosquitos (e.g., entomologists)

  Hepatitis B is a risk in every destination. It is a viral liver disease that is easily transmitted from one person to another through exposure to blood and body fluids containing the hepatitis B virus.  Travellers who may be exposed to blood or other bodily fluids (e.g., through sexual contact, medical treatment, sharing needles, tattooing, acupuncture or occupational exposure) are at higher risk of getting hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all travellers. Prevent hepatitis B infection by practicing safe sex, only using new and sterile drug equipment, and only getting tattoos and piercings in settings that follow public health regulations and standards.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease. It can spread from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

It is recommended that all eligible travellers complete a COVID-19 vaccine series along with any additional recommended doses in Canada before travelling. Evidence shows that vaccines are very effective at preventing severe illness, hospitalization and death from COVID-19. While vaccination provides better protection against serious illness, you may still be at risk of infection from the virus that causes COVID-19. Anyone who has not completed a vaccine series is at increased risk of being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 and is at greater risk for severe disease when travelling internationally.

Before travelling, verify your destination’s COVID-19 vaccination entry/exit requirements. Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are adequately protected against COVID-19.

 The best way to protect yourself from seasonal influenza (flu) is to get vaccinated every year. Get the flu shot at least 2 weeks before travelling.  

 The flu occurs worldwide. 

  •  In the Northern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs from November to   April.
  •  In the Southern Hemisphere, the flu season usually runs between April and   October.
  •  In the tropics, there is flu activity year round. 

The flu vaccine available in one hemisphere may only offer partial protection against the flu in the other hemisphere.

The flu virus spreads from person to person when they cough or sneeze or by touching objects and surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus. Clean your hands often and wear a mask if you have a fever or respiratory symptoms.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. It can spread quickly from person to person by direct contact and through droplets in the air.

Anyone who is not protected against measles is at risk of being infected with it when travelling internationally.

Regardless of where you are going, talk to a health care professional before travelling to make sure you are fully protected against measles.

Typhoid is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Travellers going to countries in South Asia should speak to a health care professional about getting vaccinated.

Malaria  is a serious and sometimes fatal disease that is caused by parasites spread through the bites of mosquitoes.   There is a risk of malaria in certain areas and/or during a certain time of year in this destination. 

Antimalarial medication may be recommended depending on your itinerary and the time of year you are travelling. Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic before travelling to discuss your options. It is recommended to do this 6 weeks before travel, however, it is still a good idea any time before leaving.    Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times:  • Cover your skin and use an approved insect repellent on uncovered skin.  • Exclude mosquitoes from your living area with screening and/or closed, well-sealed doors and windows. • Use insecticide-treated bed nets if mosquitoes cannot be excluded from your living area.  • Wear permethrin-treated clothing.    If you develop symptoms similar to malaria when you are travelling or up to a year after you return home, see a health care professional immediately. Tell them where you have been travelling or living. 

In this destination, rabies is commonly carried by dogs and some wildlife, including bats. Rabies is a deadly disease that spreads to humans primarily through bites or scratches from an infected animal. While travelling, take precautions , including keeping your distance from animals (including free-roaming dogs), and closely supervising children.

If you are bitten or scratched by a dog or other animal while travelling, immediately wash the wound with soap and clean water and see a health care professional. In this destination, rabies treatment may be limited or may not be available, therefore you may need to return to Canada for treatment.  

Before travel, discuss rabies vaccination with a health care professional. It may be recommended for travellers who are at high risk of exposure (e.g., occupational risk such as veterinarians and wildlife workers, children, adventure travellers and spelunkers, and others in close contact with animals). 

Safe food and water precautions

Many illnesses can be caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated by bacteria, parasites, toxins, or viruses, or by swimming or bathing in contaminated water.

  • Learn more about food and water precautions to take to avoid getting sick by visiting our eat and drink safely abroad page. Remember: Boil it, cook it, peel it, or leave it!
  • Avoid getting water into your eyes, mouth or nose when swimming or participating in activities in freshwater (streams, canals, lakes), particularly after flooding or heavy rain. Water may look clean but could still be polluted or contaminated.
  • Avoid inhaling or swallowing water while bathing, showering, or swimming in pools or hot tubs. 

Travellers' diarrhea is the most common illness affecting travellers. It is spread from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.

Risk of developing travellers' diarrhea increases when travelling in regions with poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Practise safe food and water precautions.

The most important treatment for travellers' diarrhea is rehydration (drinking lots of fluids). Carry oral rehydration salts when travelling.

Typhoid   is a bacterial infection spread by contaminated food or water. Risk is higher among children, travellers going to rural areas, travellers visiting friends and relatives or those travelling for a long period of time.

Travellers visiting regions with a risk of typhoid, especially those exposed to places with poor sanitation, should speak to a health care professional about vaccination.  

Cholera is a risk in parts of this country. Most travellers are at very low risk.

To protect against cholera, all travellers should practise safe food and water precautions .

Travellers at higher risk of getting cholera include those:

  • visiting, working or living in areas with limited access to safe food, water and proper sanitation
  • visiting areas where outbreaks are occurring

Vaccination may be recommended for high-risk travellers, and should be discussed with a health care professional.

Insect bite prevention

Many diseases are spread by the bites of infected insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas or flies. When travelling to areas where infected insects may be present:

  • Use insect repellent (bug spray) on exposed skin
  • Cover up with light-coloured, loose clothes made of tightly woven materials such as nylon or polyester
  • Minimize exposure to insects
  • Use mosquito netting when sleeping outdoors or in buildings that are not fully enclosed

To learn more about how you can reduce your risk of infection and disease caused by bites, both at home and abroad, visit our insect bite prevention page.

Find out what types of insects are present where you’re travelling, when they’re most active, and the symptoms of the diseases they spread.

There is a risk of chikungunya in this country.  The risk may vary between regions of a country.  Chikungunya is a virus spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. Chikungunya can cause a viral disease that typically causes fever and pain in the joints. In some cases, the joint pain can be severe and last for months or years.

Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times. There is no vaccine available for chikungunya.

  • In this country,   dengue  is a risk to travellers. It is a viral disease spread to humans by mosquito bites.
  • Dengue can cause flu-like symptoms. In some cases, it can lead to severe dengue, which can be fatal.
  • The level of risk of dengue changes seasonally, and varies from year to year. The level of risk also varies between regions in a country and can depend on the elevation in the region.
  • Mosquitoes carrying dengue typically bite during the daytime, particularly around sunrise and sunset.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites . There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue.
  • In this country, risk of  dengue  is sporadic. It is a viral disease spread to humans by mosquito bites.
  • The level of risk of dengue changes seasonally, and varies from year to year. The level of risk also varies between regions in a country and can depend on the elevation in the region.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites . There is no vaccine or medication that protects against dengue fever.

Animal precautions

Some infections, such as rabies and influenza, can be shared between humans and animals. Certain types of activities may increase your chance of contact with animals, such as travelling in rural or forested areas, camping, hiking, and visiting wet markets (places where live animals are slaughtered and sold) or caves.

Travellers are cautioned to avoid contact with animals, including dogs, livestock (pigs, cows), monkeys, snakes, rodents, birds, and bats, and to avoid eating undercooked wild game.

Closely supervise children, as they are more likely to come in contact with animals.

Person-to-person infections

Stay home if you’re sick and practise proper cough and sneeze etiquette , which includes coughing or sneezing into a tissue or the bend of your arm, not your hand. Reduce your risk of colds, the flu and other illnesses by:

  •   washing your hands often
  • avoiding or limiting the amount of time spent in closed spaces, crowded places, or at large-scale events (concerts, sporting events, rallies)
  • avoiding close physical contact with people who may be showing symptoms of illness 

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) , HIV , and mpox are spread through blood and bodily fluids; use condoms, practise safe sex, and limit your number of sexual partners. Check with your local public health authority pre-travel to determine your eligibility for mpox vaccine.  

Tuberculosis is an infection caused by bacteria and usually affects the lungs.

For most travellers the risk of tuberculosis is low.

Travellers who may be at high risk while travelling in regions with risk of tuberculosis should discuss pre- and post-travel options with a health care professional.

High-risk travellers include those visiting or working in prisons, refugee camps, homeless shelters, or hospitals, or travellers visiting friends and relatives.

Medical services and facilities

Outside the Kathmandu Valley and Pokhara, medical services and facilities do not meet standards you might expect in Canada.

Most hospitals require up-front payment or confirmation of insurance coverage prior to commencing treatment. Following an incident or accident, you should contact your travel insurance company without delay.

Trekkers may experience frostbite and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitudes. AMS can be deadly.  Medical evacuation to Bangkok, Thailand, New Delhi, India, or Singapore is often necessary for serious conditions. Carry medical and first aid kits.

Make sure you get travel insurance that includes coverage for medical evacuation and hospital stays.

Travel health and safety

Keep in Mind...

The decision to travel is the sole responsibility of the traveller. The traveller is also responsible for his or her own personal safety.

Be prepared. Do not expect medical services to be the same as in Canada. Pack a   travel health kit , especially if you will be travelling away from major city centres.

You must abide by local laws.

Learn about what you should do and how we can help if you are arrested or detained abroad .

Penalties for possession, use or trafficking of illegal drugs are severe. Convicted offenders can expect jail sentences, including life imprisonment, and heavy fines.

Drugs, alcohol and travel


Photography of military installations and personnel is prohibited.

You may not bring any kind of firearm into Nepal. Violators who bring in firearms or ammunition may be prosecuted. This includes firearm imitations or in jewellery form.

Traffic drives on the left.

There is zero tolerance for driving under the influence of alcohol.

Helmets are mandatory for motorcycle drivers.

You must carry an international driving permit.

International Driving Permit

Dress and behaviour

Women should dress conservatively in public.

Public displays of affection are considered to be inappropriate at many of Nepal’s religious sites.

Commercial surrogacy

Commercial surrogacy services for foreigners is banned in Nepal. If you have already entered into such an arrangement, you should seek advice from a local lawyer on how this ban could affect your situation and, in particular, on any exit requirement.

Dual citizenship

Dual citizenship is not legally recognized in Nepal.

If local authorities consider you a citizen of Nepal, they may refuse to grant you access to Canadian consular services. This will prevent us from providing you with those services.

Travellers with dual citizenship

International Child Abduction

The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is an international treaty. It can help parents with the return of children who have been removed to or retained in certain countries in violation of custody rights. It does not apply between Canada and Nepal.

If your child was wrongfully taken to, or is being held in Nepal by an abducting parent:

  • act as quickly as you can
  • consult a lawyer in Canada and in Nepal to explore all the legal options for the return of your child
  • report the situation to the nearest Canadian government office abroad or to the Vulnerable Children’s Consular Unit at Global Affairs Canada by calling the Emergency Watch and Response Centre.

If your child was removed from a country other than Canada, consult a lawyer to determine if The Hague Convention applies.

Be aware that Canadian consular officials cannot interfere in private legal matters or in another country’s judicial affairs.

  • International Child Abduction: A Guidebook for Left-Behind Parents
  • Travelling with children
  • Canadian embassies and consulates by destination
  • Emergency Watch and Response Centre

The currency is the Nepalese rupee (NPR).

The economy is largely cash-based; however, credit cards can be used in major stores, hotels and restaurants. ATMs are available in larger cities such as Kathmandu and Pokhara. 

It is illegal to take NPR banknotes out of the country.

Any amount over US$5,000 in cash (or equivalent in foreign currencies) must be declared at customs upon arrival in Nepal.


Nepal is located in an active seismic zone and there is a continued risk of earthquakes, aftershocks and landslides.

Become familiar with local earthquake safety procedures. In the event of an earthquake, exercise caution, follow the advice of local authorities and monitor local media.

Monsoon season

The rainy (or monsoon) season extends from June to September. Severe rainstorms can cause flooding and landslides, resulting in significant loss of life and extensive damage to infrastructure, and hampering the provision of essential services.

Tornadoes, cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons and monsoons

In mountainous regions, avalanches present a risk and have resulted in fatalities. Monitor local media and weather forecasts and follow the advice of local authorities.

Local services

In case of emergency, dial:

  • police: 100
  • tourist police: + 977 1 424 7041
  • medical assistance: 102
  • firefighters: 101

General assistance

  • Tourist Police in Kathmandu: 1144 (hotline)
  • Tourist Police in Pokhara: +977 61 462761
  • Thamel Tourism Development Council: +977 1 4700750

More about the Tourist Police

Consular assistance

Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand.

For emergency consular assistance, call the Consulate of Canada in Nepal and follow the instructions. At any time, you may also contact the Emergency Watch and Response Centre in Ottawa.

The decision to travel is your choice and you are responsible for your personal safety abroad. We take the safety and security of Canadians abroad very seriously and provide credible and timely information in our Travel Advice to enable you to make well-informed decisions regarding your travel abroad.

The content on this page is provided for information only. While we make every effort to give you correct information, it is provided on an "as is" basis without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied. The Government of Canada does not assume responsibility and will not be liable for any damages in connection to the information provided.

If you need consular assistance while abroad, we will make every effort to help you. However, there may be constraints that will limit the ability of the Government of Canada to provide services.

Learn more about consular services .

Risk Levels

  take normal security precautions.

Take similar precautions to those you would take in Canada.

  Exercise a high degree of caution

There are certain safety and security concerns or the situation could change quickly. Be very cautious at all times, monitor local media and follow the instructions of local authorities.

IMPORTANT: The two levels below are official Government of Canada Travel Advisories and are issued when the safety and security of Canadians travelling or living in the country or region may be at risk.

  Avoid non-essential travel

Your safety and security could be at risk. You should think about your need to travel to this country, territory or region based on family or business requirements, knowledge of or familiarity with the region, and other factors. If you are already there, think about whether you really need to be there. If you do not need to be there, you should think about leaving.

  Avoid all travel

You should not travel to this country, territory or region. Your personal safety and security are at great risk. If you are already there, you should think about leaving if it is safe to do so.

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travel advisory to nepal

Latest update

Exercise a high degree of caution in Nepal due to the risk of civil unrest and natural disasters.


Nepal (PDF 733.49 KB)

Asia (PDF 2.21 MB)

Local emergency contacts

Fire and rescue services, medical emergencies.

Call 100 or go directly to the hospital.

Call 100 or visit the nearest police station. Alternatively, call the Tourist Police.

Traffic Police

Tourist police.

  • 1144 – headquarters
  • 470 0750 – Kathmandu
  • 146 2761 – Pokhara

Advice levels

Exercise a high degree of caution in Nepal.

  • A small number of incidents involving Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) occur annually, often associated with political events, such as election periods. Physical confrontations between rival political organisations can also occur. In November 2022, there were several small-scale explosions in Nepal.

Terrorism is a threat worldwide. An attack could happen anywhere and at any time.

  • Political protests are commonplace and general strikes occasionally occur. Strikes can disrupt essential services. Don't visit government buildings during political unrest. Reconsider the need to operate a vehicle during strikes as it may be a target. Don't participate in public protests as it would breach your visa conditions, and you would be arrested and deported.
  • Pickpocketing and petty theft are common. Bag-snatching and 'snatch-and-grab' attacks by thieves on motorbikes occur. Keep your belongings close. Don't travel alone; females are at a higher risk of assault.
  • Travellers have been victims of armed robberies and assaults, including sexual assaults. Drink spiking often occurs before a sexual assault. Never accept food, drinks, gum or cigarettes from strangers. Don't leave your food or drinks unattended.
  • Nepal experiences earthquakes, landslides, floods and severe weather. Be prepared for a major emergency. Keep an emergency kit that includes first aid supplies and bottled water.

Full travel advice:  Safety

  • Altitude sickness is a risk above 2,500m. It can be life-threatening. It can affect anyone, even people who are physically fit. Ensure your travel insurance covers medical evacuation from altitude. Some towns, including Kathmandu, have high levels of seasonal smog and pollution. Get medical advice if you have breathing difficulties.
  • Malaria is a risk in the Terai (plains) and Hill districts and Chitwan National Park. Consider taking anti-malarial medicine for these areas. Other mosquito-borne diseases are becoming more common, including in Kathmandu. These include dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Ensure your accommodation is insect-proof. Get vaccinated against Japanese encephalitis before you travel.
  • Rabies is common. It's fatal without immediate treatment. Avoid dogs, monkeys and other mammals. Get medical help straight away if an animal bites or scratches you.
  • HIV/AIDS is common. Take steps to reduce your risk of exposure to the virus. 
  • Waterborne, foodborne, parasitic and other infectious diseases are common. These include typhoid, cholera and hepatitis. Drink only boiled or bottled water. Avoid raw or undercooked food.
  • Medical facilities in Nepal are very limited, especially outside Kathmandu. In Kathmandu, treatment at high-standard clinics is expensive. If you're seriously ill or injured, you'll need medical evacuation. Ensure your travel insurance covers this.

Full travel advice:  Health

  • Don't use or carry illegal drugs. You may be offered illegal drugs in tourist areas. Penalties for drug offences are severe, including for possessing small amounts.
  • Be careful when taking photos. It's illegal to photograph army barracks, checkpoints and military personnel.
  • Don't participate in public protests as it would breach your visa conditions, and you would be arrested and deported.
  • It's illegal to convert people from their religion. Punishment can include jail. If you're suspected of trying to convert people, you will likely be deported and banned from re-entering Nepal.
  • Same-sex relations are legal. However, society is conservative. LGBTI travellers have reported harassment and discrimination. Avoid public displays of affection.
  • Nepal doesn't recognise dual nationality. Always travel on your Australian passport.

Full travel advice:  Local laws

  • You need a visa to enter Nepal. Visas-on-arrival are available, but travellers should check with the nearest Nepal Embassy for details and conditions.
  • You no longer need to complete a pre-departure COVID-19 (PCR) test or show a vaccination certificate on arrival in Nepal.
  • Nepal is issuing trekking and mountaineering permits, but you should check with your intended tour provider on operations in the 2023 spring and autumn seasons.
  • The local currency is the Nepalese Rupee (NPR). Exchange foreign currency for NPR at banks and exchange bureaus in major centres. Major hotels and commercial centres accept credit cards. ATMs are uncommon in remote areas. Carry enough cash to cover your needs.
  • Only use registered taxis and authorised limousines. Taxi drivers often refuse to use meters and overcharge travellers. Negotiate the fare with the driver before you go. Avoid public buses and vans. They're overcrowded and poorly maintained. Intercity buses often have serious accidents. Women may be harassed on public buses.

Full travel advice:  Travel

Local contacts

  • The  Consular Services Charter  details what we can and can't do to help you overseas.
  • To stay up to date with local information, follow the Embassy's social media accounts.
  • For consular help, contact the  Australian Embassy in Kathmandu .

Full travel advice:  Local contacts

Full advice

Civic unrest and political tension.

A small number of incidents involving Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) occur annually, often associated with political events, such as election periods. These attacks have caused deaths and serious injuries. Physical confrontations between rival political organisations can also occur.

These incidents usually don't target travellers, but you could get caught up in violence aimed at others.

Threats have been made against religious organisations in Nepal. This includes schools.

Demonstrations and protests

Calls for political protests, strikes and demonstrations sometimes are common. Violent clashes between protesters and authorities can occur. Avoid visiting government buildings during political unrest.

During strikes, authorities may enforce curfews at short notice in the areas that protests affect. This happens throughout Nepal. 

Illegal roadblocks and enforced national or local strikes can occur. These happen without notice and continue for long periods.

Road travel can be dangerous. Protesters may forcibly stop vehicles, including taxis, or target them with projectiles.

Travel services may also be affected. This includes travel to trekking areas and outside of the Kathmandu valley.

To reduce your risks during strikes:

  • limit your movements - don't go out unless you have to

During periods of unrest:

  • avoid demonstrations, protests and other public gatherings
  • monitor the media for new threats, especially when political tensions are high
  • avoid affected areas
  • obey curfews
  • follow the instructions of local authorities

More information:

  • Demonstrations and civil unrest

Petty crime

Pickpocketing and petty theft are common, especially:

  • at tourist sites and airports
  • from hotel rooms

Bag-snatching and 'snatch-and-grab' attacks by thieves riding motorcycles occur. Victims are often injured.

Police have increased their presence in Thamel and Durbar Marg to reduce crime in these areas.

To reduce your risk of petty crime:

  • only carry a copy of the main pages of your passport, not the original
  • walk on footpaths away from the curb, with your bag held on the opposite side to the traffic
  • keep your personal belongings close, especially in crowded areas
  • avoid travelling alone, especially if you're a woman
  • never trek alone
  • If you're the victim of fraud or a scam, report it to local police immediately.

Violent crime

Travellers have been victims of  armed robberies  and assaults, including sexual assaults .

Victims of sexual assault often have their drinks 'spiked' before the assault. This happens in popular areas of Kathmandu and Pokhara.

Women are at particular risk, especially when alone and at night.

To protect yourself from drink spiking:

  • never accept food, drinks, gum or cigarettes from strangers
  • don't leave drinks unattended
  • if you aren't sure if a drink is safe, leave it
  • stick with people you trust when you're out

Get urgent medical help if you think you or a companion have had your drinks spiked.

Cyber security

You may be at risk of cyber-based threats during overseas travel to any country. Digital identity theft is a growing concern. Your devices and personal data can be compromised, especially if you're connecting to Wi-Fi, using or connecting to shared or public computers, or to Bluetooth. 

Social media can also be risky in destinations where there are social or political tensions or laws that may seem unreasonable by Australian standards. Travellers have been arrested for things they have said on social media. Don't comment on local or political events on your social media. 

More information:  

  • Cyber security when travelling overseas  

To stay safe from terrorism:

  • be alert to possible threats, especially in public places and places frequented by foreigners
  • report any suspicious activity or items to the police
  • take official warnings seriously
  • follow the advice of local authorities

If there's an attack, leave the area immediately if you can. 

Tours and adventure activities

Transport and tour operators don't always follow safety and maintenance standards. This includes adventure activities, such as trekking, paragliding, rafting or kayaking.

Paragliding accidents have caused serious injuries and deaths. Rivers can be unpredictable and dangerous, even for experienced kayakers and rafters.

Mountaineering can be dangerous. Some mountaineering expedition companies may hire inexperienced guides and save other costs in order to offer cheaper prices, including to climb Mount Everest. Carefully check a company's credentials and experience before you book.

If you plan to do an  adventure activity :

  • check if your travel insurance policy covers it
  • ask about and insist on minimum safety requirements
  • always use available safety gear, such as life jackets or seatbelts

If proper safety equipment isn't available, use another provider.

Trekking and mountaineering

With conditions, foreign tourists are permitted to enter Nepal for mountain trekking and mountaineering. All foreigners require a permit for trekking and mountaineering. Solo foreign trekkers are required to have a licenced trekking guide. Trekking is managed through the Trekkers' Information Management System (TIMS) by:

  • Trekking Agency Association of Nepal  (TAAN)
  • Nepal Tourism Board (NTB)

All foreign trekkers must have a valid TIMS card. This includes those not travelling with organised groups.

TIMS cards help authorities locate trekkers in case there's an emergency.

Get a TIMS card through:

  • authorised trekking companies
  • TAAN offices in Kathmandu or Pokhara
  • the NTB office in Kathmandu

Special regulations apply to mountaineering expeditions. All expedition members must have permits.

Get a licenced trekking guide through authorised trekking companies.

Trekking risks

Some trekking companies or guides may offer condensed treks. This is to attract travellers with limited time or budgets.

Shorter treks may not give you enough time to get used to high altitude. This may cause excessive physical strain and lead to significant health problems or death. See  Health .

Make sure you have travel and medical insurance that covers:

  • the altitude you'll reach
  • altitude sickness
  • emergency evacuation by helicopter or other means

See  Health

Research regulations that apply to trekking in the area, such as permits or registration. Confirm requirements through:

  • reputable companies in Nepal or Australia
  • an  embassy or consulate of Nepal

Find out how long you need to safely complete your trek, especially at high altitudes.

A trek to Everest Base Camp should take at least 12 days from Lukla. This is the start and end points of treks in the Everest region.

Hire a trekking company with a good reputation and professional guides.

Don't trek alone. Solo foreign trekkers are required to have a licensed trekking guide.

Before you travel, check:

  • the security situation
  • route conditions
  • likely weather in the area

Be ready to change your plans.

For more information on trail conditions, check the  Himalayan Rescue Association .

Let family or friends know about your plans. Tell them how long your trek will take and your route.

Medical evacuation

Sometimes trekkers are pressured into taking expensive helicopter evacuations. This can happen at the first mild signs of ill health, without having had a proper medical consultation.

In such cases, insurance companies have declined to pay for the evacuation. The trekker must then pay the cost.

Some people have reported cases of dishonest trekking guides deliberately serving contaminated food or water. The aim was to make travellers sick to justify their evacuation.

Individuals who arrange helicopter evacuations sometimes falsely claim to have checked with a trekker's insurance company.

Some travellers have been encouraged to provide false or misleading information to insurance companies about an evacuation.

If you become ill while trekking, confirm if your insurance covers evacuation costs. Do this yourself, if possible, before you agree to a helicopter evacuation.


Telecommunications facilities are limited and can be unreliable, especially outside major cities and towns.

Mobile phone coverage doesn't exist in many rural and remote areas.

Essential supplies

Electricity supplies can be unreliable, including in Kathmandu. Unreliability increases during winter and in the lead up to the monsoon season.

Shortages of essential supplies can happen with limited notice. Essential supplies include:

Shortages can affect businesses, including hotels and guesthouses.

Climate and natural disasters

Nepal experiences  earthquakes , landslides, floods and  severe weather .

Major  natural disasters  can lead to:

  • injuries and deaths
  • disruptions to transport and essential services
  • damage to infrastructure
  • food shortages
  • health issues.

Be prepared for a major emergency. Keep an emergency kit that includes:

  • first aid supplies
  • water treatment tablets or stocks of bottled water.

If a natural disaster occurs:

  • keep your passport in a safe, waterproof location
  • monitor local media
  • keep in touch with friends and family
  • avoid unnecessary travel to affected regions.

Register with the  Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System  to receive alerts on major disasters.


Nepal is in an active earthquake zone. Earthquakes and tremors are common.

Landslides, floods and avalanches

Landslides and floods resulting in deaths occur regularly in Nepal. This happens especially during the monsoon season, from June to September.

Major roads and all trekking areas can be affected.

Avalanches can happen at any time of year.

Severe weather

Storms and blizzards can occur with little or no warning, especially in the Himalayas.

Travel insurance

Get comprehensive  travel insurance  before you leave. 

Your policy needs to cover all overseas medical costs, including medical evacuation. The Australian Government won't pay for these costs.

If you can't afford travel insurance, you can't afford to travel. This applies to everyone, no matter how healthy and fit you are.

If you're not insured, you may have to pay many thousands of dollars up-front for medical care.

  • what activities and care your policy covers
  • that your insurance covers you for the whole time you'll be away.

Physical and mental health

Consider your physical and mental health before you travel, especially if you have an existing medical condition. 

See your doctor or travel clinic to:

  • have a basic health check-up
  • ask if your travel plans may affect your health
  • plan any vaccinations you need.

Do this at least 8 weeks before you leave.

If you have immediate concerns for your welfare or the welfare of another Australian, call the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on +61 2 6261 3305 or contact your  nearest Australian Embassy, High Commission or Consulate  to discuss counselling hotlines and services available in your location.

  • General health advice
  • Healthy holiday tips  (Healthdirect Australia)


Not all medication available over the counter or by prescription in Australia is available in other countries. Some may even be considered illegal or a controlled substance, even if prescribed by an Australian doctor.

If you plan to bring any medication, check if it's legal in Nepal. Take enough legal medicine for your trip.

Carry a copy of your prescription and a letter from your doctor stating:

  • what the medicine is
  • your required dosage
  • that it's for personal use

Health risks

Air pollution.

Air quality in Nepal varies, especially in winter. Some towns, including Kathmandu, experience high levels of seasonal smog and pollution.

Get medical advice if you're worried about air pollution.

  • Pollution levels in Kathmandu

Altitude sickness

If you travel to an area higher than 2,500m, you might develop  altitude sickness .

Altitude sickness can be deadly. It can affect anyone, even if you're very physically fit.

Your risk of altitude sickness increases if you:

  • ascend too quickly
  • have had altitude sickness before
  • exercise or drink alcohol before you can adjust to the altitude
  • have health problems that affect your breathing.

If you'll be travelling above 2,500m, get advice from your doctor before you travel.

Insect-borne illnesses

Malaria  is a risk in:

  • the Terai (plains) and Hill districts
  • Chitwan National Park.

Other insect-borne diseases are becoming more common, including in some areas of Kathmandu. These diseases include:

  • Japanese encephalitis

To protect yourself from disease:

  • make sure your accommodation is insect-proof
  • use insect repellent
  • wear long, loose, light-coloured clothing
  • get vaccinated against Japanese encephalitis before you leave
  • consider taking medicine to prevent malaria.
  • Infectious diseases

HIV/AIDS  is common.

Take precautions if engaging in activities that expose you to the virus.

Other health risks

Waterborne, foodborne, parasitic and other infectious diseases are common. These include:

  • swine flu (influenza A H1N1)
  • bird flu (avian influenza)
  • leptospirosis

Serious outbreaks sometimes occur.

Highly contagious eye problems, such as  conjunctivitis , are common after the monsoon season.

To protect yourself from illness:

  • drink boiled water or bottled water with sealed lids
  • avoid ice cubes
  • avoid raw and undercooked food, such as salads
  • avoid contact with dogs and other mammals and birds.

Get medical advice if you have a fever or diarrhoea.

Animals may carry rabies in Nepal. If a stray dog, monkey or other mammal bites you:

  • immediately wash the wound with soap and water
  • get urgent medical treatment.

Medical care

Medical facilities.

Medical facilities and ambulances in Nepal are very limited, especially outside Kathmandu.

In Kathmandu, treatment at high-standard clinics is expensive. Up-front payment is usually needed.

If you become seriously ill or injured, you'll need to be evacuated to a place with better facilities. Medical evacuation can be very expensive.

You're subject to all local laws and penalties, including those that may appear harsh by Australian standards. Research local laws before travelling.

If you're arrested or jailed, the Australian Government will do what it can to help you under our  Consular Services Charter . But we can't get you out of trouble or out of jail.

In tourist areas, it's common to be offered to buy drugs.

Penalties for drug offences are severe. Even if you're found with small quantities, authorities can convict and jail you.

  • Carrying or using drugs

Surrogacy laws

Commercial surrogacy has been illegal since 2015.

  • Going overseas for international surrogacy
  • Going overseas to adopt a child

It's illegal to take photos or videos of:

  • army barracks
  • checkpoints
  • military personnel.

It's illegal to convert people from their religion. Punishment can include jail.

If authorities suspect you're trying to convert people, you will likely be deported and banned from re-entering Nepal for years.

Same-sex relationships are legal. Nepali LGBTI+ people actively advocate for their rights. However, Nepal is a conservative and traditional society.

Some LGBTI+ travellers have reported harassment and discrimination. Avoid public displays of affection.

  • LGBTI travellers

Australian laws

Some Australian criminal laws still apply when you're overseas. If you break these laws, you may face prosecution in Australia.

  • Staying within the law

Dual citizenship

Nepal doesn't recognise dual nationality.

If you're a dual citizen, this limits the  consular services  we can give if you're arrested or detained.

Always travel on your  Australian passport .

  • Dual nationals

Local customs

Dress codes are relaxed in tourist areas of Kathmandu and Pokhara. Other parts of the country are more conservative.

Dress modestly to avoid offending locals. If in doubt, seek local advice.

Visas and border measures

Every country or territory decides who can enter or leave through its borders. For specific information about the evidence you'll need to enter a foreign destination, check with the nearest embassy, consulate or immigration department of the destination you're entering. 

You need a visa to enter Nepal. Visas-on-arrival are available but travellers should check with the nearest Nepal Embassy for details and conditions.

You need a valid visa in your passport to leave Nepal.

Maximum stays

Australians in Nepal may be able to extend their visas. Please consult Nepal's  Department of Immigration  for updates.

Expired visas

You must have a valid visa in your passport to leave Nepal.

If your visa has expired, extend it at the Department of Immigration before you leave.

If you overstay your visa, authorities can detain you until you pay a fine. The amount of the fine is based on the number of days you overstayed.

Entry and exit conditions can change at short notice. Contact the nearest  embassy or consulate  for details about visas, currency, customs and quarantine rules.

Border measures

You no longer need to complete a pre-departure COVID-19 (PCR) test, show a vaccination certificate or quarantine on arrival in Nepal. 

Nepal’s land borders are open to foreign nationals. Follow the Australian Embassy  Facebook  and  Twitter  accounts for regular updates.

Contact an  embassy or consulate of Nepal  for details. 

Some countries won't let you enter unless your passport is valid for six months after you plan to leave that country. This can apply even if you're transiting or stopping over.

Some foreign governments and airlines apply the rule inconsistently. Travellers can receive conflicting advice from different sources.

You can end up stranded if your passport is not valid for more than six months.

The Australian Government does not set these rules. Check your passport's expiry date before you travel. If you're not sure it'll be valid for long enough, consider getting  a new passport .

Lost or stolen passport

Your passport is a valuable document. It's attractive to people who may try to use your identity to commit crimes.

Some people may try to trick you into giving them your passport. Always keep it in a safe place.

If your passport is lost or stolen, tell the Australian Government as soon as possible:

  • In Australia, contact the  Australian Passport Information Service .
  • If you're overseas, contact the nearest  Australian embassy or consulate .

If you get an emergency passport, you must also transfer your visa to your new passport before leaving Nepal.

To do this, present the following to the  Department of Immigration :

  • a police report
  • two current passport-sized photographs

Passport with 'X' gender identifier 

Although Australian passports comply with international standards for sex and gender, we can't guarantee that a passport showing 'X' in the sex field will be accepted for entry or transit by another country. Contact the nearest  embassy, high commission or consulate of your destination  before you arrive at the border to confirm if authorities will accept passports with 'X' gender markers. 

  • LGBTI travellers  

The local currency is the Nepalese Rupee (NPR).

Declare all amounts over $US5,000 or equivalent on arrival and departure. This covers all forms of currency, not only cash.

You can't take more than $NPR5,000 in or out of Nepal.

You can change foreign currency for NPR at banks and exchange bureaus in major centres.

Credit cards are accepted at major hotels and commercial places.

ATMs are not common in remote places. Carry enough cash to cover your needs.

Local travel

Monsoon season.

The monsoon season generally occurs from June to September but can be unpredictable.

Expect travel disruptions and be prepared to change your plans.

Road travel can be dangerous, especially in the low-lying Terai (plains), where the risk of flooding is higher.

Landslides are common in mountainous areas, including the Kathmandu valley.

Airports may close. Air travel disruptions are common.

Monitor  Nepal weather information  for up-to-date information on conditions. Contact your travel provider about possible disruptions to your travel plans.

Travel from Nepal to India

Nepal’s land borders are open to foreign nationals. For information on the entry requirements for India please refer to the Smartraveller India specific travel advice.

Contact the nearest  embassy or consulate of India  for up-to-date information.

  • Travel advice for India
  • Indian Ministry of Home Affairs 

Travel from Nepal to Tibet

Generally, only travellers in organised tour groups get visas and permits for the Tibetan region of China.

If you're planning to travel to Tibet:

  • check the  travel advice for China
  • contact an  embassy or consulate of the People's Republic of China

If you're in Nepal, contact the  Embassy of the People's Republic of China  in Kathmandu.

Driving permit

To drive in Nepal, you need both:

  • a valid Australian driver's licence
  • an International Driving Permit (IDP)

Get your IDP before you leave Australia.

Your travel and vehicle insurance could be void if you drive without an IDP.

If you stay for longer than six months, you need a Nepali driver's licence.

The minimum driving age is 18 years.

Road travel

You're more likely to die in a motor vehicle accident in Nepal than in Australia.

Driving can be dangerous due to:

  • crowded and poorly maintained roads
  • poor driving standards
  • aggressive drivers who ignore traffic laws.

Road travel is dangerous at night, especially in rural areas.

Landslides and flooding can damage or block rural roads. This is common during the monsoon season from June to September. Towns or areas are often cut off for days at a time.

Landslides and other disruptions can occur on the Mugling-Narayanghat highway, a section of the road between Kathmandu and Chitwan National Park, and the Prithvi Highway, the road between Kathmandu and Pokhara.

Road travel can be disrupted due to:

  • demonstrations and strikes
  • roadworks and infrastructure projects.

Significant delays on major roads within cities and towns, as well as on highways, are common.

Open drains and uncovered manholes are a risk to pedestrians and cyclists.

Locals often assume foreigners are at fault in car accidents, regardless of the situation. They may demand money. Crowds of onlookers can gather quickly after an accident and may turn hostile.

Car accidents resulting in injuries often lead to confrontations and road closures. Violence against drivers also happens.

If you plan to drive in Nepal:

  • learn local traffic laws and practices
  • monitor the media for road closures
  • always keep your car windows up and doors locked
  • avoid travel between cities after dark.

If you're involved in a traffic accident and are worried about your safety:

  • stay in your locked vehicle
  • phone 103 for the Traffic Police
  • wait for the police.
  • Driving or riding


Check if your travel insurance policy covers you when using a motorbike, quad bike or similar vehicle.

Always wear a helmet. Helmets bought in Nepal may not meet Australian safety standards.

Only use registered taxis and authorised limousines. Arrange them through your hotel or resort.

Taxi drivers often refuse to use meters and overcharge travellers. Negotiate a fare with the driver before the trip.

Fuel shortages can make it hard to get local taxis and other forms of transport.

Public transport

Travel on public buses and vans is dangerous. These vehicles are overcrowded and poorly maintained.

There are frequent accidents with multiple deaths involving intercity buses. 

Accidents involving private hire cars and jeeps travelling between cities regularly occur and can cause injuries or death. If you are concerned, ask your driver to slow down and drive safely.

Women are often harassed, including sexually, on public buses.

  • Transport and getting around safely

Check with your airline or tour operator for updates on your flight.

In normal circumstances, cancellations and delays are common, especially during:

  • tourist seasons when the airport is crowded
  • bad weather (especially throughout the monsoon season).

Check weather conditions before travelling. Bad weather conditions in mountainous and hill regions could further increase the risk to your safety and cause lengthy delays. Airfields such as Lukla's, in the Solukhumbu (Everest) region, are among the most remote and difficult to land on. These airfields are challenging for even the most technically proficient pilots and well-maintained aircraft.

All carriers from Nepal have been  refused permission  to operate air services to the EU due to safety concerns.

There have been several air accidents in Nepal over the last 10 years, including:

  • 15 January 2023, a Yeti Airlines flight from Kathmandu to Pokhara with 72 people on board crashed shortly before landing. All 68 passengers and four crew were killed.
  • 29 May 2022, a Tara Air flight from Pokhara to Jomsom with 22 people on board crashed shortly after take-off in bad weather. All 16 passengers and six crew were killed.
  • 12 March 2018, a US Bangla Airlines flight from Bangladesh with 71 passengers on board crashed on landing at Kathmandu International Airport. Fifty-one passengers were killed.
  • 26 February 2016, an Air Kasthamandap flight with 11 passengers on board crashed while flying between Nepalgunj and Jumla. Two crew members were killed.
  • 24 February 2016, a Tara Air flight with 20 passengers on board crashed while flying between Pokhara and Jomsom. Twenty-three passengers were killed.

Check  Nepal's air safety profile  with the Aviation Safety Network.

DFAT doesn't provide information on the safety of individual commercial airlines or flight paths.

Tourism complaints

Contact your provider with any complaints about tourist services or products.

You can also lodge a complaint with the  Nepal Tourism Board .


Depending on what you need, contact your:

  • family and friends
  • travel agent
  • insurance provider

Traffic Police 

Always get a police report when you report a crime.

Your insurer should have a 24-hour emergency number.

Consular contacts

Read the  Consular Services Charter  for what the Australian Government can and can't do to help you overseas.

For consular help, contact the Australian Embassy in Kathmandu.

Australian Embassy, Kathmandu

300 metres north of Narayan Gopal Chowk Bansbari, Kathmandu Phone: (+977 1) 437 1678 Fax: (+977 1) 437 1533 Email:  [email protected]

Website: Facebook:  Australian Embassy, Nepal X:  @AusAmbNP

Check the Embassy website for details about opening hours and any temporary closures.

24-hour Consular Emergency Centre

In a consular emergency, if you can't contact an embassy, call the 24-hour Consular Emergency Centre on:

  • +61 2 6261 3305 from overseas
  • 1300 555 135 in Australia


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travel advisory to nepal

  • Passports, travel and living abroad
  • Travel abroad
  • Foreign travel advice

Entry requirements

This advice reflects the UK government’s understanding of current rules for people travelling on a full ‘British citizen’ passport from the UK, for the most common types of travel.

The authorities in Nepal set and enforce entry rules. If you’re not sure how these requirements apply to you, contact the Embassy of Nepal in the UK .

COVID-19 rules

There are no COVID-19 testing or vaccination requirements for travellers entering Nepal.

Passport validity requirements

To avoid problems at immigration, make sure your passport has an ‘expiry date’ at least 6 months after your date of entry into Nepal.

Check with your travel provider that your passport and other travel documents meet requirements. Renew your passport if you need to.

You will be denied entry if you do not have a valid travel document or try to use a passport that has been reported lost or stolen.

Checks at border control

At border control, you may need to show:

  • a travel insurance document which has cover for healthcare costs including repatriation and other emergencies while you are in Nepal
  • confirmation of where you will spend your first night, for example, a hotel booking

Visa requirements

You can get a Nepal visa online up to 15 days in advance of your arrival. You can also queue up to get a tourist visa on arrival, but payment must be made in cash, with US dollars being the preferred currency. Applying in advance can reduce the time it takes you to pass through immigration. Visas are available for several lengths of stay at various costs. Look on the immigration department website for the options and how to apply .

Overstaying your visa in Nepal is a serious crime, and can lead to significant fines or imprisonment.

Vaccination requirements

At least 8 weeks before your trip, check the vaccinations and certificates you need in TravelHealthPro’s Nepal guide .

If you are arriving in Nepal directly from certain countries in Africa and Latin America, you will need to show a yellow fever certificate to enter Nepal.

Customs rules

There are strict rules about goods you can take into or out of Nepal. You must declare anything that may be prohibited or subject to tax or duty.

Bringing precious metals into Nepal is strictly regulated. You can carry gold ornaments up to 50 grams and silver ornaments up to 100 grams. If you bring in undeclared gold or silver, you may:

  • get a fine equivalent to the value of the goods
  • go to prison for between one month and 5 years depending upon the value of the goods
  • have the goods confiscated
  • be detained during the proceedings

Taking money into Nepal

When you arrive in Nepal, declare on your customs declaration any amount above the value of 5,000 US dollars in banknotes or 10,000 dollars in notes and travellers cheques combined. Customs will give a certified declaration which you must keep. You will need to convert all your Nepali currency before you leave Nepal, and the bank or exchange counter at the airport may ask you for the declaration.

ATMs are not reliable outside main tourist sites.

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Nepalese Flag

Last verified: Friday, 12. April 2024 at 08:11 AM

Nepal Travel Advisory

  • Southern Asia
  • Nepal Travel Advice

We advise caution when travelling to Nepal

Local situation: 3.3 / 5.

We advise caution when travelling to Nepal. We detected travel advisories from 6 sources for this specific country.

Regional Situation: 3.4 / 5

Nepal shares land borders with India and India . For these countries, the individual warning index is 3.4 (India) and 3.4 (China).

Current informationen on Covid-19 in Nepal

There are currently no officially reported cases of infections with SARS-CoV-2 (or Coronavirus) in Nepal. As reported by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control this morning (~8:30am CET).

There are currently no officially reported deaths related to this disease in Nepal.


Advice scoring history for Nepal

Chart of the risk level over that last 200 days. This is the daily calculated travel risk for Nepal.

Chart of the number of sources over that last 200 days. This is the daily number of advisory sources (of any rating) that have been active on that day.

Note: Changes happening on the 28th/29th of July 2019 are related to a change in the software and number of sources processed.

Rating Details (single travel warnings)

These are the individual advisories published by other countries about the destination Nepal from a travellers perspective. The scoring of all messages combined is the foundation for the current rating 3.3 out of 5.0 .

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This is the general advisory usually covering the country as a whole.

Advisory issued by: New Zealand

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Exercise increased caution in Nepal due to the potential for political rallies and protests to result in civil unrest (level 2 of 4).


Advisory issued by: United States

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Reissued after periodic review with updates to risk indicators and "if you decide to travel" section. Exercise increased caution in Nepal due to the potential for isolated political violence.   Country Summary: Political demonstrations intended to be peaceful can sometimes escalate into violence and may be met with force by Nepali ...


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Advisory issued by: Canada

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The Canadian goverment suggests: Exercise a high degree of caution.


Advisory issued by: Finland

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Iaktta särskild försiktighet -


Individual rating changes for Nepal

This is the recent history of individual changes of travel advices that affected the total asessment of Nepal. Most recent events first.

Changes from August 7th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 3.3 to 3.6 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of United States

The United States government increased their existing warning for Nepal to 4.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 2.0 (by +2.0).

Changes from June 30th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 3.4 to 3.3 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of Finland

The Finnish government decreased their existing warning for Nepal to 2.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 3.0 (by -1.0).

Changes from March 22nd 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 3.3 to 3.4 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of Canada

The Canadian government increased their existing warning for Nepal to 4.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 3.0 (by +1.0).

Changes from March 18th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 3.1 to 3.3 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of Australia

The Australian government increased their existing warning for Nepal to 5.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 4.0 (by +1.0).

Changes from March 17th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 3.0 to 3.1 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of Ireland

The Irish government increased their existing warning for Nepal to 4.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 3.0 (by +1.0).

Changes from March 15th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 2.8 to 3.0 . Here are the influencing details:

The Australian government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 4.0.

Changes from March 14th 2020

The total rating for Nepal changed from 2.7 to 2.8 . Here are the influencing details:

Flag of Denmark

The Danish government increased their existing warning for Nepal to 4.0 (of 5.0) from the previous rating of 3.0 (by +1.0).

Changes from September 25th 2019

The total rating for Nepal changed from 0.0 to 0.0 . Here are the influencing details:

The United States government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 2.0.

The Canadian government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 3.0.

Flag of New Zealand

The New Zealand government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 2.0.

The Irish government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 3.0.

The Finnish government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 3.0.

The Danish government issued a new warning for Nepal with a rating of 3.0.

About Nepal

Nepal with its capital Kathmandu is a country in Asia (Southern Asia), slightly larger than Arkansas (140,800 km²). The country is located Southern Asia, between China and India. The climate can be described as varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south. The landscape is Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north. With a population of about 29.52 million citizens.

Nepalese flag

Flag of Nepal

Introduction Video

Basic Statistics and Facts

Environmental problems and natural hazzards.

These are problems Nepal is facing. Environmental issues refer to damages of the nature due to industry and society. Natural hazzards refer to potential dangers originating in nature.

Environmental problems

  • agricultural runoff
  • and industrial effluents)
  • contaminated water (with human and animal wastes
  • deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives)
  • vehicular emissions
  • wildlife conservation

Natural hazzards

  • drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
  • severe thunderstorms

Top Industries and Agricultural Products

These are the main product industries and agricultural products of Nepal. This list indicates what this country is good at producing.

  • brick production
  • oilseed mills

Agriculture products

  • water buffalo meat

Nepalese Imports and Exports

These are the main product categories of imports and exports to and from Nepal.

Export products

Import products

  • electrical goods
  • petroleum products

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the current travel advisory for nepal.

Nepal is currently rated at 3,3 out of a possible 5.0. Collected from 6 official sources. We advise caution when travelling to Nepal.

Is it safe to travel Nepal in 2024?

Visiting the country Nepal is usually fine. The score is at 3,3 Just keep an eye open, obey local rules and you'll most likely be fine.

How many travel advisories do you know for Nepal?

We currently evaluate 11 official sources each morning. Today, we know of active advisories from 6 individual sources for Nepal.

What is the current Corona virus situation in Nepal?

There are currently no officially reported cases of infections with SARS-CoV-2 (or Coronavirus) in Nepal. As reported by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control this morning (~8:30am CET). There are currently no officially reported deaths related to this disease in Nepal.

What is the size of Nepal?

Nepal has a size of 140,800 km² or 54,363 mi² which is slightly larger than Arkansas.

Common Frequently Asked Questions

For non-country specific questions, please check our global F.A.Q.

Travel safety map for Nepal and bordering countries.

Risk level icon

If you want to embed Nepal travel warning information into your website or application, check out these tools.

  • Is Nepal safe to travel?
  • What's the safety situation in Nepal?
  • Are there security warnings for Nepal?

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2020-03-10: Integrated data from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (COVID-19/ SARS-CoV-2/ Coronavirus).

2019-09-01: Added timeline charts for risk level and number of advisories.

2019-07-29: Added two more sources (Finland and Denmark). Affects country ratings.

2019-07-15: South-Sudan was missing and was added today.

2019-05-18: Performance improvements for API users.

2019-03-23: Introduced professional API with more data.

2019-02-13: Added three more sources (Cyprus, Ireland and Malta). Affects country ratings.

Ministry Of Foreign Affairs

Guidelines – Travelling to Nepal during COVID 19

The following arrangements have been made for traveling to Nepal, in reference to the COVID-19 pandemic. 


Visa-on-arrival has been resumed as usual, i.e., as it was before the pandemic, which means that holders of passports of those countries that are eligible for visa-on-arrival will be able to avail that facility. If your country is listed for the requirement of visa before arriving in Nepal, you should arrange for a visa before entering Nepal (Please visit / for more information). 

Additionally, there are health-related guidelines to be followed for traveling to Nepal.  

Traveling to Nepal

While traveling to Nepal, you are required to bring with you the following documents:

  • A vaccination certificate showing a full dose of vaccination against COVID-19, completed at least 14 days prior to entering Nepal.

If you are not being fully vaccinated, or have not completed a full dose of vaccination at least 14 days prior to arriving in Nepal, COVID-19 test report (RT-PCR, Gene Expert, True NAAT or WHO accredited test) showing negative result done within the last 72 hours of boarding from the first airport or, if you are entering through land border, done within 72 hours of entry.

This provision will not be applicable to children below 5 years. 

2. A c opy of the permit, if applicable, for mountaineering, trekking and other activities that will require permission.

Visa from the Embassy

1. If you are fully vaccinated and want to apply for a visa to the Embassy, you can apply with the following documents in addition to the regular visa-related documents:

a. COVID-19 vaccination certificate showing a full dose of vaccination with the last dose taken at least 14 days prior to entry into Nepal,

c. A c opy of the permit, if applicable, for mountaineering, trekking, and other such activities that will require permission.

2. If you are not fully vaccinated, you are required to give a valid reason for not being vaccinated. 

After arriving in Nepal

Once you arrive in Nepal, you are required to abide by the health-related protocols recommended by the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population, from time to time. Such recommendations may change during or after arriving in Nepal. Please keep on visiting the webpages of the Department of Immigration and Covid-19 Crisis Management Center (CCMC) for the latest information. Please note that the government may introduce place-specific restrictions if the situation requires.

Please note that you may undergo a health check to see if you have any of the COVID-19 related symptoms while entering Nepal. If any of such symptoms are found, you are required to take a mandatory antigen test (at your own expense) at the entry point. If tested positive, you are required to go to an isolation center designated by the Ministry of Health and Population, the Government of Nepal, or to a hospital. 

(Note: all the expenses including but not limited to, hotel quarantine, hospital, insurance, isolation, COVID-19 test etc. shall be borne by the traveler him/herself)

Please note that:

  • If you develop any COVID-19 related symptoms, you are required to take a COVID-19 test as soon as possible and remain in isolation if tested positive. 
  • The list of hotels for quarantine can be found here .

Copenhagen, 14 March 2022

travel advisory to nepal

  • Travel Tips Nepal for planning and on the go

Book your individual trip , stress-free with local travel experts

  • travel-advice
  • Travel guide
  • Itineraries
  • Local Experts
  • Travel Advice
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More travel information for Nepal

From travel safety to visa requirements, discover the best tips for traveling to Nepal

  • Culture and Etiquette in Nepal
  • Eating and drinking in Nepal
  • Getting around Nepal: Transportation Tips
  • Travel Health Nepal
  • How to get to Nepal
  • Best time to visit Nepal

Kids always help break the ice with strangers, and Nepal can be a magical place for a child to visit. Arranging childcare is easy, and Nepalis generally love kids. Some children (especially those with fair skin and blond hair) may be uncomfortable with the endless attention, however.


Emergencies, entry regulations, gay and lesbian nepal, money and banks, opening hours and public holidays, tourist information, useful websites, travellers with disabilities, national holidays, the nepali year, tailor-made travel itineraries for nepal, created by local experts.

Exclusive Everest

11 days  / from 3248 USD

Exclusive Everest

Trek in the Everest region of Nepal's Himalayas, absorbing spectacular views at every step, including Everest rising above the Nuptse Ridge, Lhotse, the iconic peak of Ama Dablam and other Himalayan giants too. Top this off with a shot of warm Nepalese culture for an experience of a lifetime.

Himalayan Family Adventure

13 days  / from 1950 USD

Himalayan Family Adventure

Experience Nepal's hill villages and jungle lowlands as you embark on a family-friendly adventure of a lifetime. Expect mini mountain treks, overnight camps, river rafting and wildlife safaris. Come here for action, stunning mountain scenery and a look around bustling Kathmandu too.

The UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Nepal

13 days  / from 2200 USD

The UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Nepal

Set in the heart of the Himalayas, the landlocked South-Asian country of Nepal is home to a wealth of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. From wild jungles to ancient civilisations, Nepal offers a combination of history, culture and nature; perfect for the most well-seasoned of travellers.

Tailor-made trips for   Nepal

Parents will of course have to take extra precautions in the light of Nepal’s poor sanitation, dogs, crowds, traffic, pollution, bright sun, rooftops and steep slopes. It may be hard to keep hands clean and yucky stuff out of mouths, and you’ll have to keep a firm grip on small children while out and about. If your child comes down with diarrhoea, keep them hydrated and topped up on salts – have oral rehydration formula on hand.

Naturally, you’ll want to plan a more modest itinerary and travel in greater comfort with children than you might on your own. In tourist areas it should be no problem finding food that kids will eat, though in other places it might be more challenging. Baby food and disposable nappies/diapers are available in Kathmandu and Pokhara, but are hard to come by elsewhere. Some toys and books can be bought in Nepal, but bring a supply of your own. Carry small tots in a backpack or papoose – a stroller or pushchair will be virtually useless.

Trekking with children is generally a wonderful experience, though it can be logistically awkward if they’re too old to ride in a backpack and too young to hike on their own (though mules or horses can often be arranged).

Nepal’s climate varies significantly through the year, with seasons showing themselves very differently at different altitudes. The pre-monsoon period, generally very hot and humid at lower elevations, lasts from mid-April to early June, while the monsoon itself, when travel is difficult but not impossible, dominates the period between mid-June and mid-September. Autumn sees pleasant temperatures and dry weather, while winter is generally cool and clear.

Your money goes a long way in Nepal. Off the tourist routes, it can actually be hard to spend $30–40 a day , including food, transport and accommodation. On the other hand, Kathmandu and some of the other tourist traps can burn a hole in your pocket faster than you might expect. Even so, it’s still possible for a frugal traveller to keep to $20 a day in the capital, although the figure can effortlessly balloon to $50 or more simply by choosing slightly nicer hotels and restaurants. If you like to travel in greater luxury, you should reckon on spending $60–80 or more per day , depending mainly on standard of accommodation.

You’ll inevitably pay over the odds for things at first, and it may even feel as if people are charging you as much as they think they can get away with, but that’s hardly a market principle exclusive to Nepal. Bargain where appropriate, but don’t begrudge a few rupees to someone who has worked hard for them.

Many hotels (and most tourist restaurants) quote their prices exclusive of the 13 percent “government” tax (essentially a value-added tax) and charge another 10 percent service charge.

No matter how tight your budget, it would be foolish not to splurge now and then on some of the things that make Nepal unique: organized treks, rafting, biking and wildlife trips are relatively expensive, but well worth it.

Nepal is one of the world’s more crime-free countries, but it would be unwise not to take a few simple precautions.

The main concern is petty theft . Store valuables in your hotel safe, close windows or grilles at night in cities to deter “fishing”, and use a money belt or pouch around your neck. Some public bus routes have reputations for baggage theft. Pickpockets (often street children) operate in crowded urban areas, especially during festivals; be vigilant.

If you’re robbed, report it as soon as possible to the police headquarters of the district in which the robbery occurred. Policemen are apt to be friendly, if not much help. For insurance purposes, go to the Interpol Section of the police headquarters in Durbar Square, Kathmandu, to fill in a report; you’ll need a copy of it to claim from your insurer once back home. Bring a photocopy of your passport and your Nepali visa, together with two passport photos.

Violent crime is rare. An occasional concern is a certain amount of hooliganism or sexual aggression in the Kathmandu tourist bars, and late-night muggings do sometimes occur. In addition, there have been a couple of well-publicized armed robberies and sex murders in the national parks on the edge of the Kathmandu Valley. A few Western women have been raped, but most problems come about within relationships with Nepali men – trekking or rafting guides, for instance – not due to attack by strangers. The countryside, generally, is very safe, though there is a small risk of attack by bandits on remote trekking trails. In the Terai, there are a number of armed Madhesi groups, but tourists are not targets and you are unlikely to be affected much beyond the odd delayed bus, roadblock or bandh .

There are several ways to get on the wrong side of the law. Smuggling is the usual cause of serious trouble – if you get caught with commercial quantities of either drugs or gold you’ll be looking at a more or less automatic five to twenty years in prison.

In Nepal, where government servants are poorly paid, a little bakshish sometimes greases the wheels. Nepali police don’t bust tourists simply in order to get bribes, but if you’re accused of something it might not hurt to make an offer, in an extremely careful, euphemistic and deniable way. This shouldn’t be necessary if you’re the victim of a crime, although you may feel like offering a “reward”.

The worst trouble you’re likely to run into is one of Nepal’s all-too-common civil disturbances . Political parties, student organizations and anyone else with a gripe may call a chakka jam (traffic halt) or bandh (general strike). In either case, most shops pull down their shutters as well, and vehicles stay off the roads to avoid having their windows smashed. Demonstrations sometimes involve rock-throwing, tear gas and lathis (Asian-style police batons), but you’d have to go out of your way to get mixed up in this.

Drugs are illegal in Nepal, but it is impossible to walk through Thamel or any of the other tourist hotspots without being approached by a dealer offering hash . It would be incredibly stupid to go through customs with illegal drugs, but discreet possession inside the country carries relatively little risk. While the drug dealers are often shady characters, they are not generally informants.

Power comes at 220 volts/50 cycles per second, when you can get it: lengthy power cuts (“load shedding”) are a daily occurrence. Smarter hotels and restaurants have backup generators. Tourist guesthouses usually offer sockets that accept almost any kind of pin, but the European standard two-pin is the most common.

Dial 100 for the police . Hospitals and other organizations have their own telephone numbers for an ambulance, but get a Nepali-speaker to do the talking. Registering with your embassy can speed things up in the event of an emergency.

All foreign nationals except Indians need a visa to enter Nepal. These are free (for 30 days) for nationals of other South Asian Area Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries: Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh. All other nationals have to pay for them. Tourist visas are issued on arrival at Kathmandu airport and official overland entry points. At the former, queues can be long, so you may prefer to get one in advance from a Nepali embassy or consulate in your own country. Otherwise, have a passport-size photo at the ready. At the airport, you can pay the visa fee in US dollars, euros, pounds sterling or other major foreign currencies. At overland entry points, officials tend to demand US dollars or Nepali rupees.

The fee structure at the time of writing was $25 for 15 days, $40 for 30 days and $100 for 90 days; all are multiple-entry visas. Fees may change without warning, however, so double-check at w before setting out. Tourist visas can be extended up to a maximum of 150 days in a calendar year: an extension of 15 days or less costs $30; for more than 15 days, it costs an extra $2 per day. Extensions are granted only at the Kathmandu or Pokhara Department of Immigration offices. Submit your passport and one passport-size photo with your application. A transit visa, valid for 24 hours and non-extendable, costs $5.

Don’t overstay more than a couple of days, and don’t tamper with your visa – tourists have been fined and even jailed for these seemingly minor infractions.

It is no longer necessary to have a trekking permit to visit the most popular trekking regions, but you will need the TIMS card, which amounts to much the same thing. You’ll have to pay national park entry fees for the Annapurna, Everest and Langtang areas. A handful of remote regions are still restricted, and require permits to enter.

It’s worth noting, too, that a few sites in the Kathmandu Valley , including the entire city of Bhaktapur, charge entry fees.

Customs officers are fairly lax on entry, but checks are more thorough on departure, and it is illegal to export objects over 100 years old (see Ethical shopping).

While the gay scene in Kathmandu is growing slowly, and the government is taking a more progressive line than in the past, homosexuality is still very much frowned upon. (Lesbianism is barely even considered a possibility.) In a society where men routinely hold hands and often share beds, gay couples may feel a certain freedom in being able to be close in public, but otherwise the same advice on sexual behaviour in public applies as for heterosexual couples. The only approach a gay traveller is likely to get is from touts who, at the end of a long inventory of drugs and “nice Nepali girls”, might also offer “boys”. But it’s nothing like the scene in, say, Thailand. For more information, contact the Blue Diamond Society ( w, a Kathmandu-based gay rights pressure group.

It’s worth taking out insurance before travelling, to cover against theft, loss and illness or injury. Before paying for a new policy, however, check whether you’re already covered: some all-risks home insurance policies may cover your possessions when overseas, and many medical schemes include cover when abroad.

A typical policy usually provides cover for the loss of baggage, tickets and – up to a certain limit – cash, as well as cancellation or curtailment of your journey. Most of them exclude so-called dangerous sports unless an extra premium is paid: in Nepal this can mean whitewater rafting, trekking (especially above 4000m) and climbing. Many policies can be tailored – for example, sickness and accident benefits can often be excluded or included at will. If you do take medical coverage, ascertain whether benefits will be paid as treatment proceeds or only after return home, and whether there is a 24-hour medical emergency number. When securing baggage cover, make sure that the per-article limit will cover your most valuable possession. If you need to make a claim, you should keep receipts for medicines and medical treatment, and in the event you have anything stolen, you must obtain an official statement from the police.

Cyber cafés are abundant in Nepal. Beyond Kathmandu and Pokhara, however, connections can be painfully slow. Expect to pay around Rs25–100/hr. Find out whether a power cut is due before going online, as only a few cyber cafés have backup generators. Many hotels and restaurants in touristy areas offer wi-fi access.

For unlimited Wi-Fi on the go whilst travelling Nepal, buy a Skyroam Solis , which works in 130+ countries at one flat daily rate, paid for on a pay-as-you-go basis. You can connect up to five devices at once. Prices start from as little as €5 a day.

Most hotels and guesthouses provide laundry services, generally charging around Rs50–100/kg. In Thamel and other tourist areas, numerous laundries offer a same-day service. If you’re doing your own, detergent is sold in inexpensive packets in cities, or you can buy a cheap cube of local laundry soap almost anywhere.

The media is fast-developing in Nepal and even remote places now have access to newspapers, TV and, increasingly, the internet.

Despite a literacy rate of less than 50 percent, Nepal boasts more than a thousand newspapers – an outgrowth of two noble Brahmanic traditions: punditry and gossip. Several are published in English, the most readable and incisive being the weekly Nepali Times . Of the dailies, the Kathmandu Post remains the frontrunner, overshadowing The Himalayan Times and República . All are hard to find outside big cities, but are available online.

A number of magazines are published in English, the most interesting being Himal ( w ) and ECS Nepal ( w ). Foreign publications such as the International Herald Tribune , Time and Newsweek are available from bookshops in Kathmandu and Pokhara.

As well as several terrestrial Nepali channels, cable and satellite TV – broadcasting programmes from India and the West – is widespread, and more and more hotel rooms have TVs. The influential government-run Radio Nepal ( w ) on 103 FM has English-language news bulletins daily at 8pm. Local FM stations are sprouting like mushrooms and increasingly using ethnic languages and local dialects. There are a couple of English-language ones in the Kathmandu Valley; the trendiest is Kantipur ( w on 96.1 FM. If you have a short-wave radio, you can pick up the BBC World Service: w lists the frequencies.

Nepal’s unit of currency is the Nepali rupee ( rupiya ), which is divided into 100 paisa (which you will never see). At the time of writing, the exchange rate was around Rs79 to US$1, Rs127 to £1 and Rs108 to €1. Most Nepali money is paper: notes come in denominations of Rs1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000.

More upmarket tourist businesses quote prices in US dollars, and may even expect payment in that currency. A fistful of rupees will very rarely be refused, but if you’re planning to stay in classy hotels, or book flights or rafting trips, it’s worth bringing some US currency. A selection of denominations is useful; make sure the bills are relatively new. Euros and pounds sterling are accepted too, converted on the basis of the bank’s tourist rate, or the one printed in that day’s newspaper. The Indian rupee, also widely accepted, is known as IC for Indian Currency.

One minor annoyance of travelling in Nepal is getting change . Outside tourist areas, business people will hum and haw about breaking a large note. It gets to be a game of bluff between buyer and seller, both hoarding a wad of small notes for occasions when exact change is vital. It pays to carry a range of smaller bills.

Credit and debit cards

Top-end hotels and some travel agents, shops and mid-range guesthouses accept credit cards (charging a processing fee for doing so), but most others places don’t. Most towns covered in this guide have at least one ATM, and places like Kathmandu have hundreds: almost all accept foreign debit and credit cards (though you may face a few problems if you have a Cirrus card) and have instructions in English, and many are open 24 hours. Annoyingly, however, most have an Rs10,000 withdrawal limit for each transaction. Let your bank know you intend to use your card in Nepal before leaving home, as they sometimes stop cards used abroad for fear that they have been cloned or stolen.

Some banks also issue credit card cash advances, and American Express cardholders can similarly draw money at the Amex office in Kathmandu. A good alternative to debit or credit cards are the pre-paid “cash passport” cards ( w issued by companies such as Travelex.

Travellers’ cheques

Travellers’ cheques are more secure than cash, but are used less and less these days. US dollar cheques are widely accepted in tourist areas, and cheques denominated in other major currencies are usually accepted as well. If you’re travelling off the beaten track, however, it’s wiser to stick to cash.

Banks and moneychangers

Using banks in Nepal is, by south Asian standards, hassle-free. Numerous banks vie for tourist business, as do a horde of government-registered moneychangers . The former tend to give slightly better rates, though the latter are often more convenient.

Moneychangers can be found wherever there are significant numbers of tourists, while banks are more widespread. Hours for foreign exchange vary: at least one Kathmandu airport moneychanger operates around the clock, Nepal Bank’s central Kathmandu (New Road) branch stays open seven days a week, and some private banks keep extended hours, but lesser branches generally change money only from 9am to 3pm Monday to Friday, often closing early on Fridays. Moneychangers keep generous hours (usually daily 9am–8pm).

Hold onto all exchange receipts in case you want to change money back when you leave. Some banks (including those at Tribhuwan airport and official border crossings) will buy rupees back, though they may only give US dollars in return. If you’re entering India, changing Nepali currency into Indian currency is no problem.

In the Kathmandu Valley, government offices and post offices are open Monday to Friday from 9am to 5pm (sometimes closing at 4pm between mid-Nov and mid-Feb); outside the valley, they often open on Sunday as well.

Museums are usually closed at least one day a week; opening times are fairly similar to office hours. Shops keep long hours (usually 9–10am to 7–8pm), and in tourist areas generally open daily. Some banks in tourist areas and Kathmandu are also generous with their hours, but elsewhere you’ll generally have to do your transactions between 9am and 3pm from Monday to Friday. Moneychangers keep longer hours. Travel agents tend to work from around 9am to the early evening; airline offices are open roughly the same hours as government offices, and often close for lunch between 1pm and 2pm.

Nepal’s hectic calendar of national holidays can shut down offices for up to a week at a time. Dates vary from year to year – Nepal has its own calendar, the Vikram Sambat, which began in 57 BC. The year starts in mid-April and consists of twelve months that are a fortnight or so out of step with the Western ones. Complicating matters further are religious festivals , which are calculated according to the lunar calendar, while Tibetan and Newari festivals follow calendars of their own.

All tourist areas and major towns have telephone/internet shops that offer a variety of ways to make cheap international calls, including on Skype. Most have backup generators for power outages. Simpler telephone-only outfits, which advertise themselves with the acronyms ISD/STD/IDD, can be found almost everywhere there’s a phone line.

Mobile phone coverage is now found across the country, even in some trekking areas. You can generally use foreign SIM cards in Nepal, but it is far cheaper to buy a local one: Ncell is currently the most popular network, though it is not the best choice when in the mountains. When you buy a SIM (from Rs99) you’ll need to take photocopies of your passport and visa and a passport photo.

Nepali numbers are always eight digits long: in the Kathmandu Valley the 01 area code is followed by a seven-digit number; elsewhere, a three-digit area code is followed by a six-digit number; mobile phone numbers are ten digits long. You don’t need to dial the area code when you’re calling landlines from within that area. Numbers in the Kathmandu chapter of this guide are listed with codes, but note that you’ll need to remove 01 when dialling from within the Kathmandu Valley. The international dialling code for Nepal is +977. For directory enquiries call t 197 or t 535 000.

Post generally takes at least ten days to get to or from Nepal – if it arrives at all. Postcards (Rs25–30 to anywhere in the world) go through fine, but envelopes or parcels that look like they might contain anything of value sometimes go astray. Letters can be sent to a hotel or a friend’s home, or care of poste restante in Kathmandu. Mail should be addressed: Name, Poste Restante, GPO, Kathmandu (or Pokhara), Nepal. Mail is held for about two months, and can be redirected on request. In Kathmandu, American Express handles mail for cardholders and those carrying Amex cheques, and US citizens can receive mail c/o the Consular Section of the American Embassy.

When sending mail in Nepal, there’s rarely a need to deal directly with the postal system; most hotels will take it to the post office for you. Book and postcard shops in tourist areas sell stamps , and many also have their own, largely reliable, mail drop-off boxes. Where no such services exist, take your letters or cards to the post office yourself, or wait to send them from Kathmandu. Never use a public letterbox: the stamps will be removed and resold.

Parcels can be sent by air or sea. Sea mail is cheaper but takes a lot longer (three months or more) and there are more opportunities for it to go missing. Again, the private sector is much easier to deal with than the official postal service. Shipping agents and air freight services will shield you from much of the frustration and red tape, but for this they charge almost twice as much as the post office. Be sure you’re dealing with a reputable company.

Nepal is 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of GMT. That makes it 5 hours 45 minutes ahead of London, 10 hours 45 minutes ahead of New York, 13 hours 45 minutes ahead of Los Angeles, and 4 hours 15 minutes behind Sydney. Nepal doesn’t observe daylight saving time , so daylight saving time elsewhere reduces/increases the time difference by one hour.

Most restaurants automatically include a percent service charge in the bill. Trekking porters and guides have their own expectations.

Toilets range from “Western” (sit-down) flush options to a shed over a hole. In basic lodges the norm is a squat toilet. When travelling by bus you’ll almost always find a bathroom available at stops – but sometimes there is nothing but a designated field. If in doubt, ask Toilet kahaachha? (“Where is the toilet?”). Don’t flush toilet paper: put it in the basket provided. Note that paper is not provided in more basic places; Nepalis use a jug of water and the left hand.

As many villages have no covered toilets , it’s deemed okay to defecate in the open – but out of sight of others, in the early morning or after dark. Men may urinate in public away from buildings – discreetly – but women have to find a sheltered spot.

The handful of Nepal Tourism Board offices inside the country are generally friendly, if not necessarily full of information. You’ll get the most useful information from guesthouse staff and other travellers. Check the notice boards in restaurants and guesthouses around the tourist quarters for news of upcoming events or to find travelling or trekking companions. In the capital, the Kathmandu Environmental Education Project (KEEP) and the Himalayan Rescue Association can provide trekking information. Nepal’s English-language newspapers and magazines are also good sources of information, and there are several useful websites.

w Comprehensive (if rarely updated) lists of Nepal-based businesses, including hotels, travel and travel agencies.

w Hosted by Cambridge University in the UK, this site offers the last word in research, news and resources for Nepal and other Himalayan countries.

w Online edition of the Kathmandu Post , one of the country’s best dailies.

w This UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office site is usually the most detailed government advisory service on travel to Nepal.

w Useful trekking resource run by the Himalayan Rescue Association.

w KEEP’s website is good for environmental, cultural and trekking information.

w Online city guide with reviews and tagged maps.

w Helpful Nepal gateway, with FAQs on travel in Nepal, local yellow pages, directories, and photos, though information is not always up to date.

w Good news service with links to many Nepali media outlets, including the fortnightly Spotlight magazine.

w Online branch of Nepal’s best bookshop.

w The US Department of State’s website details the dangers of travelling to most countries in the world.

Nepal is a poor country without the means to cater for disabled travellers . If you walk with difficulty, you’ll find the steep slopes, stairs and uneven pavements hard going. Open sewers, potholes, crowds and a lack of proper street crossings will all make it hard for a blind traveller to get around. That said, guides and porters are readily available and should be prepared to provide whatever assistance you need.

With a companion, there’s no reason why you can’t enjoy many of Nepal’s activities, including elephant rides, mountain flights and sightseeing by private car. If you rent a taxi, the driver is certain to help you in and out, and perhaps around the sites you visit. A safari should be feasible, and even a trek, catered to your needs by an agency, might not be out of the question – mules or horses can be used on a number of trekking routes, for example.

Basic wheelchairs are available in Kathmandu’s airport, and smaller airports, including Pokhara, are mostly at ground level. Generally, however, facilities for the disabled are nonexistent, so you should bring your own wheelchair or other necessary equipment. Hotels aren’t geared up for disabled guests, though the most expensive ones have lifts and (sometimes) ramps.

Prithvi Narayan Shah’s Birthday Jan 10 or 11

Basanta Panchami Late Jan or early Feb

Shiva Raatri Late Feb or early March

Democracy Day Feb 18 or 19

Nawa Barsa (Nepali New Year) April 13 or 14

Chait Dasain Late March or early April

Ram Nawami Late March or early April

Buddha Jayanti Late April or early May

Janai Purnima Late July or early Aug

Krishna Asthami Late July or early Aug

Dasain Late Sept or early Oct (6 days)

Tihaar Late Oct or early Nov (3 days)

Constitution Day Nov 9

Nepal’s calendar has three major differences from the Western one: it is 57 (or, for three months of the year, 56) years ahead of the Western calendar; its months start and finish approximately two weeks out of kilter with their international equivalents; and the New Year officially begins with the month of Baisaakh, in mid-April. This “Bikram Sambat” calendar was established by the legendary Indian emperor Vikramaditya; India long since went over to the European model but Nepal, which resisted colonization, has maintained tradition. Inevitably, there are calls for change. Some want to return to use the “Nepal Sambat” of the Kathmandu Valley’s indigenous Newari people; others prefer to modernize.

The decisions of astrologers, on whom festival dates depend, are notoriously unpredictable, as they are based around the phases of the moon. The common names of the Nepali months are listed below; alternative spellings, sometimes based on classical Sanskrit, are often seen.

Baisaakh (April–May)

Jeth (May–June)

Asaar (June–July)

Saaun (July–Aug)

Bhadau (Aug–Sept)

Asoj (Sept–Oct)

Kaattik (Oct–Nov)

Mangsir (Nov–Dec)

Poush (Dec–Jan)

Magh (Jan–Feb)

Phaagun (Feb–March)

Chait (March–April)

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Travel Advisory

All passengers travelling to Nepal by air or land route is no longer required a fully vaccinated proof OR Negative PCR test report.

Ministry Of Foreign Affairs

Travel Advisory to Nepal (As of 28 February 2022)

Posted on March 15, 2022 March 15, 2022

Travel Advisory for passengers arriving and departing from Nepal

As per the decision of Government of Nepal (Council of Ministers) dated 28 February 2022, the travel advisory for passengers travelling to and from Nepal has been issued as follows:

1. All fully vaccinated passengers entering Nepal from abroad by air or land must submit a certificate of full vaccination of completion of 14 days against COVID-19 and are not required to possess a COVID-19 negative report.

2. Passengers who fail to submit such a certificate of full vaccination against COVID-19 should have a COVID-19 negative report (RTPCR, True NAAT, Gene Xpert) obtained within 72 hours of the departure from first port of embarkation.

3. Passengers transiting via Nepal by air to other countries are required to follow COVID-19 health protocols of destination countries.

4. International Travellers Arrival Form (CCMC Form) is still mandatory.

5. All other travel requirements to enter Nepal including prior hotel booking for quarantine are revoked.

6. All nationals of foreign countries (except Nigeria, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Cameroon, Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan, Syria and refugees with travel documents) get on-arrival visa at the port of entry of Nepal. The nationals of abovementioned restricted countries should apply for visa at Nepali embassies or missions abroad prior to their travel to Nepal.

Note: International Travellers Arrival Form is available at:

travel advisory to nepal

travel advisory to nepal

Travel Advice for Nepal

Going to Nepal and need to know about the latest government travel advice for Nepal? Find the updated travel advice and travel warnings for Nepal from governments around the world, here.

General Travel Advice and Warnings for Nepal

The decision to take a trip to Nepal is your choice and you are accountable for your personal health and safety whilst in Nepal.

The content on this page is given information only and pulled together from travel advice and warnings for Nepal by governments around the globe to their citizens.

While we make every effort to give you latest travel advice details, it is offered on an “as is” basis without warranty of any kind, expressed or implied.

This owners of this website does not assume responsibility and will not be liable for any damages in connection to the information offered.

General Cautions You Need to Bear In Mind When Travelling in Nepal

Crime – Petty criminal offenses such as pick pocketing in a crowded environment to sexual assault and muggings do occur in bigger cities of Nepal. Ensure that all your personal possessions, including passports and other traveling documents, are secure at all times.

Terrorism – Always be aware of your surroundings when in public areas. Be particularly vigilant if participating in sporting events and during religious holidays and other public events, as terrorists often make use of such events to mount attacks.

Demonstrations and Protests – Demonstrations might take place. Even peaceful demonstrations can turn violent at any moment. They can also result in disruptions to traffic and public transport. It is in your interest of safety and security to keep away from locations where demonstrations and large events are occurring and follow the directions of local authorities. Monitor local media in Nepal for details on continuous demonstrations in Nepal.

Scams – Exercise caution in crowded tourist locations in Nepal, where scammers target foreigners. If you’ve been scammed in Nepal, get to a safe area immediately; make note, as soon as possible of the name and address of the facility where you were held; alert the cops in Nepal and acquire a record and if your credit card is used by the scammer call your credit card provider to report the scam; they will likely ask for a copy of the police report to cancel the financial transaction.

Spiked Food and Drinks – Never ever leave food or beverages unattended or in the care of strangers when taking a trip in Nepal or anywhere else. Watch out for accepting snacks, beverages, gum or cigarettes from new acquaintances. These items might contain drugs that could put you in danger of sexual assault and mugging.

travel advisory to nepal

What is the entry/exit conditions for Nepal?

Every nation or territory determines who can get in or exit through its borders, in the same manner Nepal chooses exactly who enter its territories. The Government of your home country cannot step in on your behalf if you do not satisfy your Nepal’s entry or exit requirements.

To find out more concerning the entry/exit requirement for Nepal go to visa requirements for Nepal or obtain the current info with the visa office at the Nepalese embassy in your home country.

Travel insurance coverage for Nepal

Travel health cover is one of the major reasons visitors get travel insurance policy. It will not prevent you getting sick or hurt, though it can prevent you being affected financially. Medical support overseas can be very expensive.

You should shell out for all healthcare you get overseas. You can not expect to get free or subsidised care through your Nepal’s public health system, like you would in your home country.

If you can’t pay, local authorities could jail you. The government from your home country can not pay you medical costs for you, loan you money or get you out of jail.

You need travel insurance coverage for travelling to Nepal . You also need to ensure you select a plan that is right for you.

Read through the fine print of your travel insurance policy.

Declare all pre-existing conditions to your travel insurance firm upfront. If you do not, you may void your travel insurance policy.

Inform your travel insurance provider the activities you intend to do, prior to you go. Many common activities like winter sports are omitted in basic policies. You might need to pay added.

Check if you have free credit card travel insurance policy. Some cards include travel insurance cover. Nonetheless, they typically have different conditions than paid policies. Understand the differences.

If you’re going to Nepal from a country that has a reciprocal health care arrangement, you still require travel health insurance. Agreements are restricted in what they’ll will cover.

If you have an incurable health problem, you might not have the ability to obtain standard travel insurance policy. However you may have the ability to find a specialised insurance company that covers you for health, mishaps or property troubles unassociated to your disease. Speak to your insurance company to learn.

Learn more about obtaining international travel insurance policy for Nepal prior to you go.

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  • Section 10 - India
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CDC Yellow Book 2024

Author(s): David Shlim

Destination Overview

Infectious disease risks, environmental hazards & risks, safety & security, availability & quality of medical care.

Home to >29 million people, Nepal stretches for 805 km (500 mi) along the Himalayan mountains that form its natural border with China (see Map 10-13 ). The topography rises from low plains at 70 m (≈230 ft) elevation to the highest point in the world at 8,848 m (≈29,029 ft), the summit of Mount Everest. Kathmandu, the capital city with a population of >2 million people, sits in a lush valley at 1,324 m (≈4,344 ft) elevation.

Nepal’s latitude of 28°N (the same as Florida) means that its non-mountainous areas are temperate year-round. Most annual rainfall comes during the monsoon season (June–September). The main tourist seasons are the spring (March–May) and fall (October–November). The winter months, December–February, are pleasant in the lowlands but can be too cold to make trekking enjoyable in the high mountains.

Approximately 30% of travelers to Nepal go to trek into the mountains; others go to experience the country’s culture and stunning natural beauty. Lumbini, in the Terai region, is the birthplace of the Buddha and has become an increasingly popular and beautifully developed pilgrimage destination for Buddhists from around the world. In recent years, trekkers have begun traveling to the Manaslu area, which offers a hiking experience featuring less-developed lodges and extended time away from roads. Notable in this area is the Nubri Valley, which also has many sacred Buddhist sites.

In addition to trekking, Nepal has some of the best rafting and kayaking rivers in the world. Jungle lodges in Chitwan National Park allow visitors to see a wide range of wildlife, including crocodiles, rhinoceros, tigers, and a huge variety of exotic birds. Less adventurous travelers can drive to comfortable hotels offering commanding views of the Himalayas, both near Kathmandu and near Pokhara. The airport near Lumbini is being upgraded to an international airport. Pokhara airport also is scheduled to become an international airport in the future, giving visitors more options for traveling in and out of Nepal.

Map 10-13 Nepal

Map 10-13 Nepal

View Larger Figure

Enteric Infections & Diseases

Travelers to Nepal are at high risk for enteric diseases. Hepatitis A vaccine and typhoid vaccine are the 2 most important pretravel immunizations. The risk for typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever among visitors to Nepal is among the highest in the world, and the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance also is high (see Sec. 5, Part 1, Ch. 24, Typhoid & Paratyphoid Fever ). Tap water in Nepal is not considered safe for drinking, and travelers should only drink boiled or bottled water (see Sec. 2, Ch. 8, Food & Water Precautions , and Sec. 2, Ch. 9, Water Disinfection ).


Cyclospora cayetanensis , an intestinal protozoal pathogen, is highly endemic to Nepal (see Sec. 5, Part 3, Ch. 5, Cyclosporiasis ). Risk for infection is distinctly seasonal; transmission occurs almost exclusively during May–October, with a peak in June and July. Because transmission occurs outside the main tourist seasons, cyclosporiasis primarily effects expatriates who stay through the monsoon. In addition to watery diarrhea, profound anorexia and fatigue are the hallmark symptoms of Cyclospora infection. The treatment of choice is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; no highly effective alternatives have been identified.

Hepatitis E

Hepatitis E virus is endemic in Nepal, and several cases each year are diagnosed in visitors or expatriates. No vaccine against hepatitis E is commercially available; travelers should follow safe food and water precautions (see Sec. 5, Part 2, Ch. 10, Hepatitis E ).

Travelers’ Diarrhea

Travelers’ diarrhea is a risk, and the risk during the spring trekking season (March–May) is double that of the fall trekking season (October–November). Because many visitors head to remote areas that do not have available medical care, provide travelers with medications for self-treatment (see Sec. 2, Ch. 6, Travelers’ Diarrhea ). Extensive resistance to fluoroquinolones has been documented among bacterial diarrheal pathogens in Nepal.

Respiratory Infections & Diseases

Respiratory illnesses among travelers are common, both in Kathmandu and on trekking routes. The advent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) makes it more difficult to assume the etiology of a respiratory infection. Prolonged symptoms beyond 7–10 days often requires a medical assessment.

Coronavirus Disease 2019

All travelers going to Nepal should be up to date with their COVID-19 vaccines .

Influenza is a risk in Nepal, particularly in crowded teahouses at higher elevations. Trekkers should receive a current influenza immunization before travel.


Tuberculosis (TB) disease that exists among local people can be due to drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . Both multidrug-resistant and extensively–drug resistant TB have been reported in Nepal. Overall, however, risk to travelers is low.

Vectorborne Diseases

In 2019, the Ministry of Health in Nepal reported ≈18,000 cases of dengue, and in 2022, >46,000 cases. Counsel all travelers going to Nepal during the warmer, wetter months to pack an Environmental Protection Agency–registered insect repellent in their travel health kit and to practice insect bite precautions (see Sec. 4, Ch. 6, Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods ).

Japanese Encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is endemic to Nepal; the greatest disease risk is in the Terai region during and immediately after monsoon season (June–October). JE has been identified in local residents of the Kathmandu Valley, but only 1 case of JE acquired in Nepal has been reported in a foreign traveler, a tourist who spent time in the Terai region in August. JE vaccine is not routinely recommended for people trekking to higher elevation areas or spending short periods in Kathmandu or Pokhara en route to such treks. JE vaccine is recommended for expatriates living in Nepal (see Sec. 5, Part 2, Ch. 13, Japanese Encephalitis ).

Although targeted for complete elimination of malaria by 2020, Nepal continues to report low (and decreasing) numbers of indigenous cases, primarily Plasmodium vivax . No malaria transmission occurs in Kathmandu or Pokhara, and all the main Himalayan trekking routes are free of malaria, but documented transmission persists in some areas of the country. For this reason (and until malaria is eliminated from Nepal), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention continues to recommend chemoprophylaxis for travelers visiting destinations below 2,000 m (≈6,500 ft) elevation.

Air Quality

Air pollution problems in the Kathmandu valley are frequent. People with underlying cardiorespiratory illness, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or congestive heart failure can suffer exacerbations in Kathmandu, particularly after a viral upper respiratory infection. Short-term exposure to these levels of air pollution can irritate the eyes and throat. In addition, exposure to high levels of air pollution greatly increases the risk for both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, including otitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia (see Sec. 4, Ch. 3, Air Quality & Ionizing Radiation ). Children and older people are the most vulnerable.

Altitude Illness & Acute Mountain Sickness

The destinations for most trekkers are the Annapurna region west of Kathmandu, the Langtang trekking area north of Kathmandu, and the Mount Everest region east of Kathmandu. In the Annapurna region, short-term trekkers can choose to hike to viewpoints in the foothills without reaching any high elevations. Others can undertake a longer trek around the Annapurna massif, going over a 5,416 m (≈17,769 ft) pass, the Thorung La.

The highest point in the Langtang region (the summit of Langtang Lirung) is 7,245 m (23,770 ft); overall, however, high-elevation exposure in Langtang National Park is generally less than in the Everest region. By contrast, trekkers in the Mount Everest region routinely sleep at elevations of 4,267–4,876 m (≈14,000–16,000 ft) and hike to elevations >5,486 m (≈18,000 ft). This prolonged exposure to very high elevations means that travelers must be knowledgeable about the risk for altitude illness and might need to carry specific medications to prevent and treat the problem (see Sec. 4, Ch. 5, High Elevation Travel & Altitude Illness ).

Most trekkers in the Mount Everest region arrive by flying to a tiny airstrip at Lukla at 2,860 m (≈9,383 ft) elevation; they then reach Namche Bazaar at 3,440 m (≈11,286 ft) elevation the next day. Acetazolamide prophylaxis can substantially decrease the chances of developing acute mountain sickness in Namche.

Animal Bites & Rabies

Rabies is highly endemic among the dogs in Nepal, but in recent years Kathmandu has had fewer stray dogs. Half of all traveler exposures to a possibly rabid animal occur near Swayambunath, a beautiful hilltop shrine also known as the monkey temple. Advise travelers to be extra cautious with dogs and monkeys in this area. Monkeys can be aggressive if approached, and will jump on a person’s back if they smell food in a backpack. Clinics in Kathmandu that specialize in the care of foreign travelers almost always have complete postexposure rabies prophylaxis, including human rabies immune globulin. Private helicopter companies in Nepal provide rescue; thus, most people can return to Kathmandu from a trek within 1–2 days. Even in the absence of helicopter rescue, trekkers bitten in the mountains have been able to return to Kathmandu in an average of 5 days.

Natural Disasters

In April 2015, a major earthquake in Nepal caused extensive damage and killed >9,000 people. Most of the damage occurred in non-tourist areas and the infrastructure for tourism has largely been repaired. The Langtang trekking area, north of Kathmandu, was virtually destroyed by a landslide triggered by the earthquake; since then, many services have been rebuilt, and tourism is returning to the area.

Large glacial lakes formed by melting glaciers can fail massively and cause intense downstream destructive flooding. Sudden snowstorms have occasionally occurred during trekking seasons, resulting in some deaths and numerous stranded trekkers. Ordinarily, though, the weather during the trekking seasons is mild.

Road Construction Issues

In recent years, Nepal has seen a frenzy of motorable road construction. Once the most roadless country in the world, much of Nepal is now connected by roads that vary in quality from well-constructed and maintained to terrifying. Hasty planning and construction have resulted in many road washouts and landslides, especially during the heavy rains of the monsoon, and road travel in general is an uncomfortable experience.

Motor roads have been constructed up the 2 major valleys of the Around-Annapurna Trek, shortening the trip from 21 to 5 days for people traveling by vehicle. In many cases, traditional trekking trails are no longer being maintained or have been subsumed by the road, substantially changing the nature of the experience and leading trekkers to seek out the few remaining roadless areas for a more traditional hiking experience. Encourage trekkers to inquire about road construction in areas where they intend to hike, because many have found that hiking on dusty or muddy roads, alongside buses, jeeps, and motorcycles, is not the experience they were anticipating.

Contact information for 2 clinics in Kathmandu specializing in the care of foreign travelers in Nepal is available on the International Society of Travel Medicine website. Hospital facilities have improved steadily over the years, and general and orthopedic emergency surgery are available and reliable in Kathmandu. Acute cardiac care also is available, including the placement of coronary artery stents. Modern hospitals tend to compete for foreign patients, and travelers should carry the names of reliable clinics and hospitals so they can request the hospital of their choice. Occasionally, patients are taken to an alternative hospital without their consent; when reaching a hospital, patients or their companions should ascertain whether they are indeed in the hospital they requested. Medical evacuation points providing definitive care outside of Nepal include locations in India and in Thailand.

Medical Evacuation

Helicopter evacuation from most areas is readily available. Communication has improved from remote areas because of satellite and cellular telephones, and private helicopter companies accept credit cards and are eager to perform evacuations for profit. Evacuation can often take place on the same day as the request, weather permitting. Helicopter rescue is usually limited to morning hours because of afternoon winds in the mountains. Helicopter rescue is billed at ≈$4,000 per hour, with an average total cost of $8,000–$10,000 US. Evacuation insurance policies generally require that rescues be arranged through the insurance provider; if not, the cost of the rescue will be borne by the traveler. Because of ready access to helicopter evacuation, trekkers have sometimes requested rescues for trivial conditions. Due to the potential for abuse of unnecessary helicopter rescue, some international evacuation insurance companies no longer provide coverage for Nepal or impose an additional surcharge for coverage there.

The following authors contributed to the previous version of this chapter: David R. Shlim


Cave W, Pandey P, Osrin D, Shlim DR. Chemoprophylaxis use and the risk of malaria in travelers to Nepal. J Travel Med. 2003;10(2):100–5.

Government of Nepal, Ministry of Health and Population, Department of Health Services, Epidemiology and Disease Control Division. Situation update of dengue 2022. Available from: .

Hoge CW, Shlim DR, Echeverria P, Rajah R, Herrmann JE, Cross JH. Epidemiology of diarrhea among expatriate residents living in a highly endemic environment. JAMA. 1996;275(7):533–8.

Murphy H, Bodhidatta L, Sornsakrin S, Khadka B, Pokhrel A, Shakya S, et al. Traveler’s diarrhea in Nepal—changes in etiology and antimicrobial resistance. J Travel Med. 2019;26(8):taz054.

Pandey P, Lee K, Amatya B, Angelo KM, Shlim DR, Murphy H. Health problems in travellers to Nepal visiting CIWEC clinic in Kathmandu—a GeoSentinel analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021;40:101999.

Schwartz E, Shlim DR, Eaton M, Jenks N, Houston R. The effect of oral and parenteral typhoid vaccination on the rate of infection with Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A among foreigners in Nepal. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150(2):349–51.

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  1. Nepal Travel Advisory

    Reissued after periodic review with updates to risk indicators and "if you decide to travel" section. Exercise increased caution in Nepal due to the potential for isolated political violence.. Country Summary: Political demonstrations intended to be peaceful can sometimes escalate into violence and may be met with force by Nepali authorities. Read the country information page for additional ...

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    Travel Advisory. All passengers travelling to Nepal by air or land route is no longer required a fully vaccinated proof OR Negative PCR test report. ... Travel Documents; Other Consular Services. Demand Letter Attestation/ Other Attestation; Relinquishment of Nepali citizens (नेपाली नागरिकता परित्याग) ...

  17. Travel Advisory to Nepal (As of 28 February 2022)

    Travel Advisory for passengers arriving and departing from Nepal As per the decision of Government of Nepal (Council of Ministers) dated 28 February 2022, the travel advisory for passengers travelling to and from Nepal has been issued as follows: 1. All fully vaccinated passengers entering Nepal from abroad by air or land must submit a certificate of full vaccination of

  18. Travel Advice for Nepal

    Travelling to Nepal and need to learn about the latest government travel advice for Nepal? Go here find the updated travel advice and travel warning for Nepal from governments around the world.

  19. Fact Sheet: U.s. Covid

    Travel Advisory Level 2: Exercise Increased Caution Travel Advisory Level 2: Reissued after periodic review with updates to risk indicators and "if you decide to travel" section. ... $7.5 Million in funding for Nepal thus far that has enabled the DoD team for isolation and disaster camps, and to purchase oxygen cylinders, ...

  20. 4 Countries Issued New Travel Advisory Updates By U.S. State Department

    The United States Department of State has recently issued new travel advisories for these four countries: Ecuador. Sri Lanka. Nepal. Maldives. The U.S. government has shared different information and updates about each destination, and travelers should consider the recent advisories laid out in more detail below.

  21. Nepal

    Home to >29 million people, Nepal stretches for 805 km (500 mi) along the Himalayan mountains that form its natural border with China (see Map 10-13 ). The topography rises from low plains at 70 m (≈230 ft) elevation to the highest point in the world at 8,848 m (≈29,029 ft), the summit of Mount Everest. Kathmandu, the capital city with a ...

  22. Travel Nepal

    Nepal altitude sickness & medical advice; Nepal Family Travel; Trekking Regions of Nepal + view all; Stories of Nepal Menu Toggle. 9 Modern Nepali Heroes; 10 Nepali Mountaineers Who Changed History; Another way to Annapurna - Narchyang and the Herzog Trail; 10 unique day trips in Nepal to spice up your holiday + view all; Sustainability Menu ...