Gould School of Law students gather outside for a group meeting under the trees.

USC Gould is known for its collegial and supportive learning environment, drawing students from across the country and around the world. Photo credit courtesy of USC Gould.

  • J uris Doctor (JD)

Juris Doctor-Dual Degrees

Master’s degree programs.

  • C ertificates
  • U ndergraduate Courses and Programs
  • Courses of Instruction      

The USC Gould School of Law provides an interdisciplinary and innovative legal education, taught by nationally renowned professors and practitioners and energized by a collaborative, collegial student body. One of the most diverse among the nation’s top law schools, USC Gould comprises students from across the country and around the world whose ideas and experiences enrich the learning process and provide new perspectives on the law. Through practice-focused training, hands-on experiential offerings, and exceptional career services and support resources, Gould students acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to excel locally, nationally and globally.

USC Gould alumni are partners in the world’s largest law firms, chairs and top executives of industry-leading companies, and esteemed leaders in government and public service organizations. Since its founding in 1900, the school has produced scores of judges and elected officials at the city, state and federal levels, as well as abroad.

USC Gould School of Law (213) 740-7331 Email: [email protected] gould.usc.edu


Franita Tolson, JD, Interim Dean *

Thomas D. Lyon, JD, PhD,  Vice Dean*

Donald M. Scotten, JD, LLM, Vice Dean*

Elizabeth A. Carroll, JD, Vice Dean

Robin Apodaca, BA, Associate Dean

Deborah A. Call, MBA, Associate Dean and Chief Programs Officer

Ben Dimapindan, MA, EdD, Associate Dean

Raymond Flores, MBA, EdD, Associate Dean and Chief Information Officer

Diana C. Jaque, MA, MLIS, JD, Associate Dean and Director of the Law Library

David Kirschner, JD, Associate Dean

Robin H. Maness, MS, Associate Dean and Chief Development Officer

Misa Shimotsu-Kim, MEd, Associate Dean

Ian Wood, MBA, Associate Dean and Chief Financial Officer

Nickey Woods, MEd, EdD, Associate Dean

Margaret A. Kean, MFA, Assistant Dean

Akita Mungaray, JD, Assistant Dean

Interim Dean and George T. and Harriet E. Pfleger Chair in Law:  Franita Tolson, JD

Judge Edward J. and Ruey L. Guirado Chair in Law: Thomas D. Lyon, JD, PhD*

Carolyn Craig Franklin Chair in Law: D. Daniel Sokol, MSt, JD, LLM

Edward G. Lewis Chair in Law: Daniel M. Klerman, JD, PhD

J. Thomas McCarthy Trustee Chair in Law: Robert K. Rasmussen, JD

Robert C. Packard Trustee Chair in Law: Robin Kundis Craig, MA, JD, PhD

Robert C. Packard Trustee Chair in Law: Edward J. McCaffery, MA, JD*

The Rader Family Trustee Chair in Law: Rebecca L. Brown, JD*

Nathan and Lilly Shapell Chair in Law: Nomi M. Stolzenberg, JD

UPS Foundation Chair in Law: Martin L. Levine, JD, LLD*

University Professor and Charles L. and Ramona I. Hilliard Distinguished Professor of Law: Lee Epstein, MA, PhD

University Professor of Journalism, Communication and Law: Geoffrey Cowan, LLB (Journalism)

Provost Professor of Public Policy, Political Science and Law:  Jeffery A. Jenkins, MA, MS, AM, PhD  (Political Science)*

Orrin B. Evans Distinguished Professor of Law, Psychology, and Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences:  Elyn R. Saks, MLitt, JD, PhD, LLD (Hon.)*

Leon Benwell Professor of Law: Michael Simkovic, JD

Virginia S. and Fred H. Bice Professor of Law: Scott A. Altman, JD*

Roy P. Crocker Professor of Law: Jody David Armour, JD

Richard L. and Maria B. Crutcher Professor of Law: Dan Simon, LLB, MBA, LLM, SJD

William T. Dalessi Professor of Law: Gregory C. Keating, MA, JD, PhD

Sidney M. and Audrey M. Irmas Endowed Clinical Professor of Law: Niels W. Frenzen, JD

Maurice Jones, Jr. – Class of 1925 Professor of Law: Stephen M. Rich, MA, JD*

John B. Milliken Professor of Law and Taxation: Jordan M. Barry, JD

Dorothy W. Nelson Professor of Law: Camille Gear Rich, JD

Newton Professor of Constitutional Law: David B. Cruz, MS, JD*

John Stauffer Law Library Director:  Diana C. Jaque, MA, MLIS, JD

Torrey H. Webb Professor of Law: Jonathan M. Barnett, MA, MPhil, JD

Professors:  Bernadette Atuahene, MPA, JD; Jonathan Choi, JD; Jessica Clarke, JD; Aya Gruber, JD; Sofia Mary Gruskin, JD, MIA (Preventive Medicine) ; Bart A. Kosko, MA, JD, PhD (Electrical and Computer Engineering) ; Sharon A. Lloyd, PhD (Philosophy) ; Jessica Marglin, MA, PhD ( Religion ); John G. Matsusaka, MA, PhD (Business) ; Claudia Moatti, PhD, HDR (Classics) ; Kevin J. Murphy, MA, PhD (Business) ; Jonathan Quong, MA, PhD  (Philosophy) *; Alison Dundes Renteln, MA, JD, PhD (Political Science) ; Emily Ryo, JD, PhD*; Wayne Sandholtz, MA, PhD (International Relations) ; Hilary M. Schor, MA, PhD (English) ; Abby K. Wood, MALD, JD, PhD; Adam Zimmerman, JD

Associate Professors:  Erik Hovenkamp, JD, PhD; Felipe Jimenez, JD, LLM, JSD; Mugambi Jouet, MPA, JD, PhD; Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, MA, MPhil, PhD (History) ; Marcela Prieto Rudolphy, JD, LLM, JSD

Assistant Professors:  Erin Miller, JD, PhD; Jeessoo Nam, JD

Adjunct Professors:  Diana C. Jaque, MA, MLIS, JD; Richard Peterson, MDR, JD, LLM

Adjunct Assistant Professors:  Anitha Cadambi, LLB, LLM; Judy K. Davis, MLIS, JD; Diane Ellis, MLIS, JD; Sarah Gruzas, JD; Amber Kennedy Madole, MLIS, JD; Paul Moorman, MLIS, JD; Brian Peck, JD; Karen Skinner, MS, MLS, JD

Clinical Professors:  Michael Chasalow, MBA, JD*; Hannah R. Garry, MA, JD*; Lisa Klerman, JD; Jean Lantz Reisz, JD; Heidi L. Rummel, JD

Clinical Associate Professor: Michael Parente, JD, PhD

Clinical Assistant Professors:  Jef Pearlman, MEng, JD; Deepika Sharma, JD

Professors of Lawyering Skills:  Sara Berman, JD; Elizabeth A. Carroll, JD; Rebecca S. Lonergan, JD

Associate Professor of Lawyering Skills: Barrett L. Schreiner, MA, JD

Professors of the Practice of Law: Clare Pastore, JD; Donald M. Scotten, JD, LLM*

Emeriti Professors:  Scott H. Bice, JD ( Dean Emeritus, and Robert C. and Nanette T. Packard Professor Emeritus of Law ); Alexander M. Capron, LLB*, MA (Hon.) ( University Professor Emeritus and Scott H. Bice Chair Emeritus in Healthcare Law, Policy and Ethics ); Marshall Cohen, MA, MA (Oxon) ( University Professor Emeritus , Philosophy; Dean Emeritus ); Edward J. Finegan, MA, PhD (Linguistics) ; Ronald R. Garet, MA, MPhil, JD, PhD* (Carolyn Craig Franklin Chair Emeritus in Law and Religion) ; Thomas D. Griffith, MAT, JD ( John B. Milliken Professor Emeritus of Law and Taxation) ; George Lefcoe, LLB ( Ervin and Florine Yoder Chair Emeritus in Real Estate Law ); Michael H. Shapiro, MA, JD (Dorothy W. Nelson Professor Emeritus of Law) ; Larry G. Simon, LLB (Herbert W. Armstrong Professor Emeritus of Constitutional Law) ; W. David Slawson, MA, LLB* (Torrey H. Webb Professor Emeritus of Law)

Clinical Emeriti Professors: Michael J. Brennan, LLB; Lee W. Campbell, JD; Noel M. Ragsdale, JD*

Emeriti Professor of Lawyering Skills: Robert M. Saltzman, JD

Emeriti Law Librarians: Pauline M. Aranas, MLIS, JD ( John Stauffer Charitable Trust Chief Information Officer Emerita and Law Librarian Emerita ); Leonette M. Williams, MSLS ( Law Librarian Emerita )

*Recipient of university-wide or school teaching award.

USC Gould School of Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association . For information on ABA accreditation, please contact:

The American Bar Association 321 North Clark Street Chicago, IL 60654 (312) 988-5000

Juris Doctor

The Juris Doctor (JD) is the standard degree to practice law in the United States. To obtain the degree, full-time attendance for six semesters is required. During the first year, students are enrolled in a curriculum of basic courses that examine fundamental legal institutions and address legal problems relevant to today’s society and the modern practice of law. During the second and third years, students must complete Constitutional Law: Rights , a writing requirement, and at least 6 units of experiential courses. Beginning with the entering class of 2022, all students must also complete Race, Racism, and the Law. The remainder of the courses taken in years two and three are elective. All students must complete 37 numerically graded law units at USC beyond the first-year curriculum and at least 88 units overall.

Qualified second- and third-year JD students have an opportunity to study international law through an exchange program with leading partner institutions worldwide. For more information, please see the Gould School of Law website.

All applicants are required to take the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) administered by the Law School Admissions Council (LSAC) or the Graduate Records Examinations (GRE) administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS). Based on current test administration calendars, applicants who take the LSAT must take the test no later than February of the year in which they seek to start law school. Applicants who take the GRE must take the test no later than March 1 (additional information or changes are available in the application instructions) of the year in which they plan to start law school. All students begin their first-year classes in August.

USC Gould School of Law admits a small number of highly qualified transfer students with LLM degrees from USC Gould. These students will have taken a large number of law courses in their LLM course of study and received strong grades in those courses. The LSAT is not required.  

USC Gould School of Law offers several dual degree programs with the graduate schools on campus. These programs enable qualified students to earn a law degree (JD) and a graduate degree in less time than it would take to earn both degrees independently. For more information, please see the  Gould School of Law website.

While students may be accepted for a dual degree program when they are accepted to the law school, most students do not apply until near the end of the first year. All programs require that students successfully complete the required first year of law school before beginning work toward the other degree. Credit for graduate work completed prior to the completion of the first year of law school may not be applied toward the law degree. Students are not eligible for either of their degrees until they complete the requirements for both degrees. 

In all cases, prospective students must seek and gain acceptance to both the law school and the other graduate program, and have the dual degree program approved by both schools. Decisions regarding admission to the law school and the graduate program are made independently. For more information, contact the Law School Admissions Office at  [email protected] .

Master of Laws in Alternative Dispute Resolution (LLM in ADR) 

The on-campus Master of Laws in Alternative Dispute Resolution (LLM in ADR) program is a two- to four-semester, full-time and part-time master’s degree program for law graduates and attorneys interested in building strength as advocates in ADR processes or gaining skills and a prestigious credential for pursuing career opportunities as mediators or arbitrators.

Students submitting an application must have earned a basic law degree, a Bachelor of Laws (LLB), a Juris Doctor (JD) or the foreign equivalent. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

Master of Laws in International Business and Economic Law (LLM in IBEL) 

The on-campus Master of Laws in International Business and Economic Law degree is a two- to four-semester, full-time and part-time master’s degree program for law graduates and attorneys interested in developing a global perspective and interdisciplinary skills that will enable them to understand and integrate relevant laws, policies and business best practices that shape international commerce and trade.

Master of Laws in International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE)

The on-campus Master of International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE) degree is offered by USC Gould School of Law jointly with USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences Department of Economics. This degree provides students with an interdisciplinary, global perspective and the knowledge and skills relevant to the laws, policies, and business practices that shape international trade and economics.

The Master of International Trade Law and Economics is a one-year, 32-unit degree program offered on campus on a full-time basis. This degree is open to anyone with a bachelor’s degree in any field, however, students are recommended to have a strong foundation in economics and/or mathematics or another quantitative background. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

Master of Laws in Privacy Law and Cybersecurity (LLM in PLCS)

The on-campus Master of Laws in Privacy Law and Cybersecurity degree is a two- to four-semester, full-time and part-time master’s degree program for law graduates and attorneys who wish to develop skills that will enable them to understand and integrate relevant laws, policies and best practices that shape privacy law and cybersecurity.

Students submitting an application must have earned a basic law degree, a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree or the foreign equivalent. Please visit the  Gould School of Law website  for more information.

Master of Laws (LLM) (On-campus and Online)

The on-campus Master of Laws (LLM) program is a master’s degree program for foreign graduate students trained in law. This two- to four-semester, full-time and part-time program introduces foreign lawyers to American law and the U.S. legal system and prepares them for leadership roles in the global market. Students may enroll in an optional certificate track in Alternate Dispute Resolution, Business Law, Entertainment Law, Transnational Law and Business, or Technology and Entrepreneurship Law.

The online Master of Laws (LLM) program is a master’s degree program for foreign graduate students trained in law. This program is offered on a part-time basis in a completely online modality and introduces foreign lawyers to American law and the U.S. legal system and prepares them for leadership roles in the global market. Students may enroll in an optional certificate track in Business Law, Compliance, Entertainment Law and Industry, Financial Compliance, Health Care Compliance, Human Resources Compliance, Privacy Law and Cybersecurity or Social Work Administration.

Students submitting an application to either LLM program must have earned a basic law degree, a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree or the foreign equivalent. Please visit the Gould School of Law website  for more information.

Two-Year Extended Master of Laws (LLM)

The on-campus Two-Year Extended Master of Laws (LLM) program combines a one-year certificate program with a one-year master’s degree for foreign graduate students trained in law. During the first year, students complete mandatory law and English courses to prepare them for the master’s program and further their English fluency. After successful completion of the first year, students earn a Certificate in U.S. Legal Studies   . In the second year, students matriculate into our on-campus Master of Laws program.

Students submitting an application must have earned a basic law degree, a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree or the foreign equivalent. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

Master of Comparative Law (MCL) 

The on-campus Master of Comparative Law (MCL) program is a master’s degree program for foreign graduate students trained in law who have already earned an LLM degree. This two-semester, full-time program is focused on the study of comparative law.

Students submitting an application must have earned a basic law degree, a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree or the foreign equivalent and have previously earned an LLM degree. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

Master of Dispute Resolution (MDR) 

The on-campus Master of Dispute Resolution (MDR) program is a two- to four-semester, full-time and part-time master’s degree program for graduates from varying fields of study, who are interested in building strength as advocates in alternative dispute resolution processes.

Students submitting an application must have earned an undergraduate degree by the time they begin the MDR program. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

Master of Studies in Law (MSL) (On-campus and Online)

The on-campus Master of Studies in Law (MSL) is a full-time and part-time master’s degree program designed for new graduates and seasoned professionals from varying fields of studies and careers, who seek an understanding of how the U.S. legal system functions. Students may enroll in an optional certificate track in Business Law; Compliance; Human Resources Law and Compliance; Law, Social Justice and Diversity; and Media and Entertainment Law.

The online Master of Studies in Law (MSL) is designed for new graduates as well as seasoned professionals from varying fields of studies and careers. This program is offered on a part-time basis in a completely online modality for students who seek an understanding of how the U.S. legal system functions. Students may enroll in an optional certificate track in in Business Law, Compliance, Entertainment Law and Industry, Financial Compliance, Health Care Compliance, Human Resources Law and Compliance, Privacy Law and Cybersecurity, or Social Work Administration.

Students submitting an application must have earned an undergraduate degree by the time they begin the MSL degree. Please visit the Gould School of Law website for more information.

A progressive degree is an option for current USC undergraduate students. For more information, please visit the Gould School of Law website . You may also contact  USC Gould Undergraduate  for more details.)


USC Gould School of Law offers a variety of certificates to which students may apply some of their existing course work. Certificate requirements for JD and Graduate students differ and are detailed at the USC Gould School of Law website . 

USC Gould also offers stand-alone certificates to those with a bachelor’s degree to gain further knowledge of a particular area of law. 

  • Alternative Dispute Resolution Certificate    (On-campus)
  • Business Law Certificate    (Online)  
  • Compliance Certificate    (Online)
  • Entertainment Law and Industry Certificate    (Online)
  • Financial Compliance Certificate    (Online)                
  • Health Care Compliance Certificate    (Online)            
  • Human Resources Law and Compliance Certificate    (Online) 
  • Law, Social Justice and Diversity Certificate    (On-campus)
  • Privacy Law and Cybersecurity Certificate    (Online)
  • Social Work Administration Graduate Certificate    (Online)


Registration for JD students is handled by the USC Gould School of Law Office of Student Affairs. First-year students are automatically registered in their fall and spring semester courses. 

Registration for master’s students is handled by the Graduate and International Programs Office. Master’s students will receive registration information with detailed instructions on how to register for fall, spring, and summer classes prior to the start of classes. 

Grading and Attendance Policies

The grading system uses both numbers and letters in a range from 1.9 to 4.3 with letter-grade equivalents ranging from F to A+. The grade equivalents are: A+ (4.1–4.3); A (3.8–4.0); A- (3.5–3.7); B+ (3.3–3.4); B (3.0–3.2); B- (2.7–2.9); C+ (2.5–2.6); C (2.4); C- (2.1–2.3); D (2.0); and F (1.9). JD students receiving a grade of 1.9 will not receive credit for the course toward graduation. A student who fails a first-year course must repeat the course, but both grades will be included in computing that student’s grade point average. Other courses may not be repeated except on petition to the associate dean. A student with a weighted cumulative average of less than 3.10 at the end of the year is subject to additional graduation requirements. A JD student with a weighted cumulative average of less than 2.9 at the end of any year is not permitted to continue.

An overall grade point average of at least 2.6 is required for graduation for students who are enrolled in the LLM, LLM in ADR, LLM in IBEL, LLM in PLCS, MCL, MDR, MITLE, MSL, or Alternative Dispute Resolution Certificate (on-campus), Business Law Certificate (online), Compliance Certificate (online), and Entertainment Law and Industry Certificate (online), Financial Compliance Certificate (online), Health Care Compliance Certificate (online), Human Resources Law and Compliance Certificate (online) and Privacy Law and Cybersecurity Certificate (online) programs.

In addition to courses regularly offered on a CR/D/F basis, after the first year, a Juris Doctor student may elect to take up to 8 units of courses, that are otherwise numerically graded, on a CR/D/F basis. No more than 4 such units may be taken in any semester. As stated above, to earn the JD, all students (including dual degree students) must complete 37 numerically graded law units at USC beyond the first-year curriculum.

Master’s students may take up to 5 units of CR/D/F grading during the length of their program. The student must elect to take a course CR/D/F during the first two weeks of the semester. Courses or seminars may, at the instructor’s option, be designated prior to registration as not available for CR/D/F grading. 

Withdrawals from Courses

A student may not withdraw from a course later than two weeks after the first day of classes of any semester without permission of both the associate dean and the instructor.

Class attendance is an important part of a student’s law school education. It assists both the individual and their fellow students in making the most of the educational opportunity offered. Students should, therefore, attend class regularly and participate in the discussion. Some professors may require attendance and may take attendance into account in evaluating student performance.

For tuition, fee, and financial aid information, please visit the Gould School of Law website .

Standard Unit Rule

The Standard Unit Rule (also called “credit hour”) is an amount of work that reasonably approximates:

(1)  not less than one hour of classroom or direct faculty instruction and two hours of out-of-class student work per week for 15 weeks, or the equivalent amount of work over a different amount of time; or

(2)  at least an equivalent amount of work as required in subparagraph (1) of this definition for other academic activities as established by the institution, including simulation, field placement, clinical, co-curricular, and other academic work leading to the award of credit hours. (ABA Standard 310)

Depending on the course type, the law school awards credit for varying periods of time. In all cases, however, the course work entails no less than the minimum total amount of in-class and out-of-class time required by the ABA (per Interpretation 310-1):

  • 50 minutes of in-class time and two 60-minute periods of out-of-class time for 15 weeks for each unit of credit (a 15-week period may include one week for a final examination)

In exceptional cases, at the discretion of the Vice Dean for Faculty and Academic Affairs (upon the request of the faculty member), a specific course may carry 1 unit of credit greater than the time the course meets each week. Those cases are limited to courses in which the instructor certifies to the Vice Dean that the course requires substantial written work. If the written work is optional, students may enroll in these types of courses for different unit values. Students performing the written work will receive additional credit.  

Full policies and procedures for USC Gould School of Law students are published in the Student Handbook and are available on the Law Portal.

Undergraduate Courses and Programs

USC Gould School of Law, one of the nation’s premier law schools, offers undergraduate courses and programs in its curriculum, which are taught by its internationally distinguished faculty and lecturers. The mission is to provide a broad-based academic foundation in law to undergraduate students who have an interest in law and legal-related fields. Law affects everyone in our society and students will deepen their education by exploring the role law plays in the world, its impact on society, and the way in which it intersects and impacts almost every facet of life.

USC Gould courses meet a variety of graduation requirements. Some courses satisfy USC General Education (GE) requirements, and others are either required or are electives in several USC majors and minors. For more information about the Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies, the minor in Legal Studies, the minor in Law and Social Justice, the minor in Law and Migration Studies, the minor in Law and Technology, undergraduate course offerings, and those that satisfy USC General Education requirements, please visit the USC Gould School of Law website  or email: [email protected] .

Undergraduate Courses 

LAW 101w   ,  LAW 200w   , LAW 201   ,  LAW 202   , LAW 205   , LAW 206     LAW 207   ,  LAW 210p   , LAW 211   ,  LAW 212   ,  LAW 220   ,  LAW 225   ,  LAW 250w   , LAW 275p   ,  LAW 300   , LAW 305   ,  LAW 310w   ,  LAW 320p   , LAW 324   , LAW 352   , LAW 355   , LAW 401   ,  LAW 402   ,  LAW 403   ,  LAW 404   , LAW 406   ,  LAW 444   , LAW 492   ,  LAW 493   , LAW 497    and LAW 498   .

Bachelor’s Degree

Legal Studies (BS)

The Bachelor of Science in Legal Studies provides students with an in-depth understanding of the legal system including the infrastructure, the reasoning process and the substantive commitments that the legal system has made. As future leaders, students in this major will become critical thinkers able to apply and understand various legal concepts in their interaction with real-world issues locally, nationally and globally. Students in the major are required to complete a total of 48 units, consisting of 24 units of required core courses, 20 elective units, plus 2 units of internship and 2 units of a capstone project.

Minor Programs

Legal studies minor.

The Legal Studies Minor enables students to deepen their understanding of the U.S. legal system and provides them with the fundamentals of law. The Legal Studies Minor totals 22 units, consisting of 6 required units, and 16 elective units.

Law and Social Justice Minor

The Law and Social Justice Minor provides foundational knowledge of current legal systems of justice and encourages critical-analysis skills to recognize where and how change can be made. The Law and Social Justice Minor totals 20 units; 12 required units, and 8 elective units.

Law and Migration Studies Minor

The Law and Migration Studies Minor introduces students to the U.S. legal system as it relates to various aspects of immigration law, its impact on our communities, and consequences on our society nationally and globally. The Law and Migration Studies Minor totals 20 units; 12 required units, and 8 elective units.

Law and Technology Minor

The Law and Technology Minor studies the intersection of technological developments and the legal system through examining contemporary issues raised by developing technology, including internet privacy, patent law and cybercrime. The Law and Technology Minor totals 18 units; 4 required core units, 8 Law elective units, and 6 ITP elective units.

For more details on the major and minors, please visit USC Gould School of Law website . Undergraduate students wishing to declare one of the Law minors, should email: [email protected]  or submit an application form .  

Undergraduate Majors, that include LAW courses:

Law, History, and Culture (BA)    

Philosophy, Politics and Law (BA)    

Public Policy (BS)    

Undergraduate Minors, that include LAW courses:

Business Law Minor    

Forensics and Criminality Minor       

Justice, Voice, and Advocacy Minor        

Health Policy Minor       

Law and Public Policy Minor      

Law and Society Minor      

Philosophy of Law, Politics and Economics Minor     

Psychology and Law Minor       

Resistance to Genocide Interdisciplinary Minor       

Progressive Degree Programs

USC’s Progressive Degree program enables USC undergraduate students to begin work on a USC master’s degree while completing the requirements for their USC bachelor’s degree. Students complete their undergraduate degree and the Master of Studies in Law (MSL)    or the Master of International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE)    degree programs in no more than five years.

Undergraduate students may submit an application to the Master of Studies in Law (MSL) or the Master of International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE) degree programs as a junior for enrollment beginning in the fall or spring. Students must have completed at least 64 total units of undergraduate course work, excluding AP, IB or transfer units earned prior to graduation from high school. Students may apply in their junior (recommended) or senior year but no later than the semester prior to beginning graduate course work.

Students must have a minimum cumulative undergraduate GPA of 3.0 both at the time an application is submitted and at enrollment.

For more information, please visit the USC Gould School of Law website  or email  [email protected] (MSL) or [email protected] (MITLE).

Progressive Degree Program - Master of Studies in Law (MSL)

The  Master of Studies in Law (MSL)    teaches students fundamental U.S. law as well as various areas of legal specialization. This program is designed for individuals who want to gain an understanding of legal and compliance issues that will impact their future careers as entrepreneurs, business owners, administrators, scientists, engineers, educators, advocates, activists and more. USC Gould Progressive Degree Program Masters Studies in Law offers the option of earning a certificate in business law, compliance, human resources law and compliance, media and entertainment, and law, social justice, and diversity concurrent with the MSL.

Progressive Degree Program - Master of International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE)

The Master of International Trade Law and Economics degree provides an interdisciplinary, global perspective for students with an economic or other quantitative background who wish to develop knowledge and skills related to relevant laws, policies and business practices that shape international trade and economics.

The Master of International Trade Law and Economics students are required to complete 32 or 24* units of study. Students are required to enroll in 12 core units from Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences and 12 core units from Gould School of Law, with an additional 8 units of electives chosen from a list of approved course offerings.

*Students with a GPA of 3.3 and above may qualify to have 8 elective units waived, thus completing 24 units of study.

Accelerated Bachelor/JD Program (3+3)

Undergraduate students at USC, who have completed their required bachelor’s major course work by the end of their junior year (or have minimal units of upper-division elective courses remaining), may apply to our accelerated JD program. Students will complete their undergraduate and law school studies in a total of six years.  

Students must have a minimum cumulative undergraduate GPA of 3.80 both at the time an application is submitted and at enrollment. Under current ABA guidelines, the LSAT is not required; however, this is subject to change. The program is open to all participating majors. Please visit the Gould School of Law website  for more information.

  • •  Legal Studies (BS)
  • •  Law and Migration Studies Minor
  • •  Law and Social Justice Minor
  • •  Law and Technology Minor
  • •  Legal Studies Minor

Master’s Degree

  • •  Alternative Dispute Resolution (LLM)
  • •  Comparative Law (MCL)
  • •  Dispute Resolution (MDR)
  • •  International Business and Economic Law (LLM)
  • •  International Trade Law and Economics (MITLE)
  • •  Master of Laws (LLM)
  • •  Master of Studies in Law (MSL)
  • •  Privacy Law and Cybersecurity (LLM)

Dual Degree

  • •  Juris Doctor/Doctor of Pharmacy (JD/PharmD)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science and International Relations (JD/PhD)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Arts, Philosophy (JD/MA)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Communication Management (JD/MCG)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Public Administration (JD/MPA)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Public Policy (JD/MPP)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Real Estate Development (JD/MRED)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Science in Gerontology (JD/MS)
  • •  Juris Doctor/Master of Social Work (JD/MSW)

Graduate Certificate

  • •  Alternative Dispute Resolution Certificate
  • •  Business Law Certificate (On-Campus)
  • •  Business Law Certificate (Online)
  • •  Certificate in U.S. Legal Studies
  • •  Compliance Certificate
  • •  Dispute Resolution Graduate Certificate
  • •  Entertainment Law and Industry Certificate
  • •  Financial Compliance Certificate
  • •  Health Care Compliance Certificate
  • •  Human Resources Law and Compliance Certificate
  • •  Law and Government Graduate Certificate
  • •  Law, Social Justice and Diversity Certificate
  • •  Media and Entertainment Law Certificate
  • •  Privacy Law and Cybersecurity Certificate
  • •  Public Interest Certificate
  • •  Social Work Administration Graduate Certificate
  • •  Technology and Entrepreneurship Law Certificate
  • •  Transnational Law and Business Certificate

Doctoral Degree

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Campus News

Class of ’24 reflects on life-changing experience at law school.

Charleston School of Law presented its inaugural “Community Partner of the Year Award” to Charleston Pro Bono Legal Services and the U.S. Coast Guard Judge Advocate General at Saturday’s Commencement ceremony.

One family, two graduates, one solution

Before the traditional pomp-and-circumstance that comes with the scheduled annual graduation ceremony of Charleston School of Law, a small congregation of people will gather on stage in the McAlister Fieldhouse.

Law school honors community partners

Family is key to gossett’s success.

When Cade Gossett crosses the stage at Commencement this Saturday, the newly minted Charleston School of Law graduate will accept the degree with a sense of great humility and gratitude.

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Virtual q&a with charleston law students.

The Charleston School of Law will host a virtual Q&A with students and admission representatives. If you are interested in...

Summer Classes

Summer classes  at Charleston School of Law begin on Tuesday, May 28.

Charleston School of Law offices will be closed on Wednesday, June 19 in recognition of Juneteenth. No classes will be...

Charleston School of Law will be closed on Thursday, July 4 in observance of the holiday.

First-Year Orientation

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NBC Los Angeles

What to know about USC's new 2024 commencement ceremonies

Usc will host four days of commencement celebrations with over 100 events., by missael soto and city news service • published may 7, 2024 • updated on may 8, 2024 at 8:57 am, what to know.

  • USC will not have its usual main stage ceremony.
  • The university will hold more than 100 smaller commencement events.
  • Graduates will be eligible to receive up to eight tickets for the event.

USC's commencement ceremonies kick off Wednesday, May 8 through May 11, with over 100 events for the class of 2024.

24/7 Los Angeles news stream: Watch NBC4 free wherever you are

USC President Carol Folt decided to cancel the traditional main stage ceremony due to safety concerns after a protest encampment occupied Alumni Park , leading to the arrest of dozens of students.

The university will hold a "Trojan Family Graduate Celebration" at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum beginning at 8:30 p.m. Thursday. The celebration will include "drone shows, fireworks, surprise performances, the Trojan Marching Band, and a special gift just for the Class of 2024."

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All guests need a ticket and will have to go through one of the university's security checkpoints. Added security protocols were introduced following the campus unrest.

The university recommends students and guests arrive at least two hours before the ceremony to avoid any issues and give themselves ample time to enter campus.

Ceremonies will be broadcast online and recorded for those unable to attend the in-person events.

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Man accused of raping women in Angeles National Forest

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LA City Council approves study into death of LA zoo elephant deaths

Full list of graduation ceremonies dates, locations, and times here .

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Yea Alabama’s Tide on Tour 2024 event set for Birmingham

Event in downtown birmingham features kalen deboer, nate oats and greg byrne.

Alabama Crimson Tide logo - Current Logo as of 12/2023

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. ( WBRC ) - Ever wanted to ask a Alabama head coach a question like you were a reporter?

You can receive that chance as Yea Alabama’s Tide on Tour 2024 makes its third and final stop in downtown Birmingham at Events at Haven on Tuesday, May 21. The VIP portion of the night starts at 6:30 p.m. CST while the whole program, which features a Q&A session with Alabama head football coach Kalen DeBoer and head men’s basketball coach Nate Oats, starts at 7:30 p.m. CST.

VIP portion of tickets are sold out, but tickets for the general portion of the night are still on sale and can be purchased online at rolltide.com. Portions of the event go towards helping the Alabama NIL fund for student-athletes.

It features DeBoer, Oats, Alabama athletic director Greg Byrne, as well as Alabama football players Kendrick Law and Kobe Prentice.

“You get to ask your question,” Yea Alabama Director of Content Aaron Suttles said. “And I think a couple fathers took an opportunity to give their questions to their sons in Huntsville. And those coaches are so great in those intimate environments rather than a stale sort of press conference..this is your opportunity to ask those coaches what you’ve always wanted to know.”

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‘We’re begging people to come to work’: Fraternal Order of Police says Birmingham needs about 300 more officers

Brian Battie - Associated Press

Auburn football head coach gives update on Brian Battie after Florida shooting leaves 1 dead, 4 injured

Birmingham Police investigating Birmingham Saturday, May 18 shooting

One shot, suffers life-threatening injuries in Birmingham Saturday shooting; suspect detained

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One dead after single-vehicle crash in Blount County

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No. 7 Alabama prepares to face No. 10 South Carolina in first round of SEC Baseball Tournament

Auburn baseball will compete in the College Baseball Series benefiting Shriners Children’s...

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Birmingham-Southern baseball wins regional championship, advances to D3 super regionals

SC Daily Gazette

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Tougher DUI law meant to curb drunk driving in SC takes effect Sunday

By: abraham kenmore - may 17, 2024 5:38 pm.

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Steven Burritt, regional executive director of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, speaks during a press conference on Friday, May 17, 2024 at the Columbia Metropolitan Convention Center days before a new, tougher DUI law takes effect. (Abraham Kenmore/SC Daily Gazette)

COLUMBIA — Emma Longstreet of Lexington was killed nearly 12 1/2 years ago in a car accident involving a drunk driver while riding with her family on the way to Sunday church. She would have been 19-years-old this month.

A state law that may have prevented the then 6-year-old’s death is now being expanded.

Signed last July and taking effect this Sunday , the newly expanded law will require ignition interlock devices, which prevent someone who has been drinking alcohol from starting the car, for anyone convicted of a DUI no matter how high above the legal limit their blood alcohol level is. It also will apply to certain other alcohol related offenses or suspected drunk drivers who refuse to take a blood alcohol content test.

Under a 2014 law, only repeat offenders or first-time offenders who had a blood alcohol level of more than 0.15 were required to have a device installed. This latest version will likely double the number of South Carolinians required to have the devices in their vehicles.

“Emma was our future,” Karen Longstreet told reporters on Friday. “I just miss all the things we missed, you know, we never got to see her finish first grade, we never got to see her ride her bike without training wheels.”

A man in a gray polo and a woman in a red and green top stand in front of a board showing pictures of various people, in front of them reporters hold out television microphones

The driver who killed Emma admitted in court that an interlock device would have stopped him driving, said David Longstreet, Emma’s father. But the push to go from the 2014 version of the law to the current version was a long haul, he said.

“It took too long, it really should have been done sooner,” he said. “We were very happy it got to all (blood alcohol content) levels.”

David Longstreet also said he hopes the devices will eventually be required for people awaiting trial for a DUI as well.

Currently, there about 1,200 people in the state who are required to use the devices. T. Mark Childress, director of the ignition interlock device program for the state probation department, told reporters Friday that the expanded law will probably add 1,200-1,500 drivers to that number.

Users must blow into the devices, which detect if someone has a blood alcohol level over 0.02. Drivers have to test under that number to start the car and periodically while driving. Those who blow over the limit on one of these tests are hit with points on their driver’s license, which can add up to penalties including suspended driving privileges.

“The program that we have is not meant to be punitive; it’s meant to change behavior and to keep the public safe,” said Jodi Gallman, acting director of the Department of Probation, Parole and Pardon Services said Friday.

Even with the current, less restrictive law, the probation department said interlock devices prevented 2,800 people in the state from starting their car after drinking in 2022 alone.

Under the new law, a first offense DUI requires an interlock device for six months. The length of time increases on additional convictions.

The devices cost about $130 a month, Childress said, but drivers who cannot afford it can apply to a fund to cover the expense.

Drunk driving continues to be a major issue in South Carolina, according to Steven Burritt, regional executive director for Mothers Against Drunk Driving, one of the organizations hosting Friday’s press conference.

He pointed to numbers for 2022, released earlier this year, that showed a 17% increase in drunken driving fatalities over the previous year in South Carolina. At 406 fatalities, South Carolina had slightly more deaths from drunk driving than New York, a state with almost four times as many people.

“We were the 35th state to pass an all-offender ignition lock law, so there was plenty of research to tell us just how effective this would be,” Burritt said.

On average drunk driving deaths dropped 16% when states passed similar laws.

“We certainly need that,” Burritt said.

Our stories may be republished online or in print under Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. We ask that you edit only for style or to shorten, provide proper attribution and link to our website. AP and Getty images may not be republished. Please see our republishing guidelines for use of any other photos and graphics.

Abraham Kenmore

Abraham Kenmore

Abraham Kenmore is a reporter covering elections, health care and more. He joins the SC Daily Gazette from The Augusta Chronicle, where he reported on Georgia legislators, military and housing issues.

SC Daily Gazette is part of States Newsroom , the nation’s largest state-focused nonprofit news organization.

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Olympic Heritage

The university of southern california has produced more olympians, overall medalists and gold medalists than any other university in the united states., usc trojans in the olympics.

The number of Trojans that have appeared in a Summer or Winter Olympics.

The number of medals overall won by a Trojan in the Olympics.

The number of Olympic gold medals won by a Trojan to date.

USC’s participation in the Olympics dates back to 1904, when Emil Breitkreutz ’06 traveled to St. Louis, becoming the first USC student to compete in the Olympic Games. Breitkreutz took home a bronze medal in the 800-meter run — marking the beginning of a Trojan Olympic legacy that today is unrivaled.

Since then, USC has produced more Olympians, overall medalists and gold medalists than any other university in the United States.

USC’s star-studded Olympic roster includes 472 Trojans who attended the university before, during or after their Summer or Winter Olympic appearances. These athletes have represented 65 countries and participated in 30 different sports, ranging from those generally associated with USC, such as track and swimming, to more unusual sports, such as team handball, canoeing and bobsled. While Trojans traditionally have found their place in the sun during the Summer Olympics, USC athletes also have competed in the Winter Olympics 11 times.

All told, USC’s Olympians have won 711 places on Olympic teams, and have taken home 144 gold medals, 91 silver and 72 bronze.

But these achievements amount to more than medals and an abiding place in sports history. In the words of USC President Carol L. Folt, “Every one of these Olympic performances represents more than a moment in time for our Trojan athletes — each race, game and match is also a tribute to the years of sacrifice and dedication that made them Olympians, as well as the support and love they received from those around them. These Trojans show the world what it means to ‘Fight On!’”

Going into the 2020 Olympic Games, if USC were a country entering its athletes in the Olympic Games, its 305 all-time Summer Olympics medals would place it 13th among all participating countries. And in 11 different Olympics, USC’s medal count would have positioned it among the top 10 12 competing nations.

Equally impressive is USC’s history of winning Olympic gold. Ever since USC’s first gold medalist, freshman Fred Kelly ’16, earned the gold in the 110-meter high hurdles in Stockholm in 1912, Trojan athletes have won at least one gold medal at every Summer Olympics. This includes the U.S.-boycotted 1980 Moscow games, when swimmer Michelle Ford ’84, competing for her native Australia, captured the gold in the 800-meter freestyle.

USC’s Olympic heritage includes seven Trojans who have been inducted into in the U.S. Olympic Hall of Fame — Janet Evans ’95 (swimming), Sammy Lee MD ’47 (diving), Lisa Leslie ’94 (basketball), John Naber ’77 (swimming), Parry O’Brien ’54 (track and field), Charles “Charley” Paddock ’23 (track and field) and Frank Wykoff ’33 (track and field) — as well as hundreds more who have brought gold and honor to their countries and their university.

USC Athletics’ Olympic Website

Louis Zamperini

Perhaps the most widely recognized USC Olympian whose life demonstrated these ideals was the late Louis Zamperini ’40. Zamperini represented the United States in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, running a phenomenal final lap at 56 seconds. His career took a dramatic turn when the U.S. entered World War II, and Zamperini joined the U.S. Army Air Corps as a bombardier. During a routine mission over the Pacific in 1943, Zamperini and his crewmates on a B-24 crashed into the Pacific Ocean.

Surviving for 47 days on open waters, he was later captured and held under brutal conditions in a Japanese POW camp for two and a half years. Struggling to overcome the traumatic events during his captivity, Zamperini rebuilt his life upon his return to the U.S., and later became a renowned public speaker, frequently discussing the topics of motivation and reconciliation. His remarkable story is recounted in the bestselling book,  Unbroken , which was later adapted into full-length feature film in 2014.

Notable Facts about USC and Olympics

Troy’s firsts.

Emil Breitkreutz USC’s first Olympic athlete — also the university’s first medal winner — was Emil Breitkreutz ’06, who won a bronze in the 800-meter run at the 1904 St. Louis Olympics.

Fred Kelly Troy’s first Olympic gold medalist, Fred Kelly ’16, was a USC freshman when he won in the 110-meter high hurdles at the 1912 Stockholm Olympics.

Alma Richards High jumper Alma Richards LLB ’24 followed by winning another gold medal in the 1912 Games.

Charles “Charley” Paddock USC’s first double gold medalist was Charles “Charley” Paddock ’23, who won two gold medals — in the 100-meter dash and as a member of the 400-meter relay team — along with a silver in Antwerp in 1920.

Clarence “Bud” Houser The first Trojan to win double gold medals in individual events at a single Olympic Games was Clarence “Bud” Houser DDS ’26, who took home the gold for shot put and discus in Paris in 1924, and again for discus in Amsterdam in 1928 — setting Olympic discus records both times.

USC’s first women Olympians both competed in the 1928 Amsterdam Games

Lillian Copeland Lillian Copeland won a silver medal in discus in 1928 — the first year the women’s discus throw was included in Olympic competition — going on to win the gold, while also setting an Olympic discus record, in Los Angeles in 1932

Helene Mayer Helene Mayer in 1924 had won the German foil championship at age 13 — took the gold medal in fencing in 1928.

A Few Trojan Olympic Firsts

Sammy Lee   MD  Sammy Lee MD was the first male diver to win back-to-back Olympic gold medals won a gold medal in the 10-meter platform diving at the London Olympic Games in 1948 and a second gold in the same event in Helsinki in 1952. (Incidentally, Lee had waited eight years before his first Olympic competition, as both the 1940 and 1944 games were cancelled due to World War II.)

Paula Jean Myers Pope At the Rome Summer Olympics in 1960, four-time medalist Paula Jean Myers Pope became the first woman to attempt a double-twisting, one-and-one-half somersault and an inward two-and-one-half somersault from the high platform in diving competition. She won a silver medal in platform diving in Helsinki in 1952, a bronze in Melbourne in 1956, and two silvers — in platform and springboard diving — in Rome in 1960. Janice Lee York Romary Six-time Olympian fencer (non-degreed, attended 1948-50) competed in every Summer Olympics from 1948 to 1968 — the most of any Trojan. She was honored for her extraordinary streak of Olympic appearances at the 1968 Mexico City Games, where she became the first woman to carry the U.S. flag in the opening ceremonies. Romary went on to serve as the U.S. Olympic Committee’s women’s administrator for the 1976 Montreal Olympics, responsible for all U.S. women competitors, and as commissioner of fencing for the 1984 Los Angeles Games.

Jeff Float Swimmer qualified for the U.S.-boycotted Moscow Olympics in 1980 and went on to win a gold medal in Los Angeles in 1984 — becoming the first legally deaf U.S. athlete to win Olympic gold.

…And One Olympic Last

George Roth In Los Angeles in 1932, USC’s was the last person to take home Olympic gold for club swinging, a gymnastic event that was discontinued after that year. Considered a forerunner of rhythmic gymnastics, club swinging was a choreographed four-minute routine in which the athlete whirled or swung a pair of foot-high bowling-pin-shaped wooden clubs around the body and head as part of a complicated routine. (Club swinging was a medal sport in St. Louis in 1904 and in Los Angeles in 1932.)

Most Decorated USC Olympians

Janet Evans Janet Evans won three gold medals during her first Olympic appearance in Seoul in 1988, setting a world record in the 400-meter freestyle event that stood until 2006. She won a fourth gold medal, along with a silver, at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. Although she failed to medal in Atlanta in 1996, she had the honor of passing the Olympic torch to Muhammad Ali during the opening ceremonies.

Allyson Felix Nicknamed “Chicken Legs” for her lanky build, track speedster took home her first Olympic gold medal for running a leg on the 4×400-meter relay team in Beijing in 2008. She captured three more golds at the 2012 London Games, individually for the 200-meter race, and as part of the 400- and 1600-meter relay teams, as well as two more gold medals at the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games as part of those same relay teams. She was the first Trojan woman to capture Olympic gold in the 200-meter dash and the first USC runner to win gold in this event since Don Quarrie won the men’s 200-meter in 1976. Lenny Krayzelburg USC’s swimmer ’99 Lenny Krayzelburg won his first three gold medals in each of the events he competed in at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney (100-meter backstroke, 200-meter backstroke and 4×100-meter medley relay), also establishing new Olympic records in the first two events. He won his fourth gold at the 2004 Olympics in Athens, where he also served as Olympic team captain.

Lisa Leslie Lisa Leslie won her first gold medal with the U.S. women’s basketball team during the Atlanta Games in 1996. She added another gold in Sydney in 2000, a third in Athens in 2004 and one more in 2008 in Beijing — becoming the first basketball player, male or female, to win gold medals in four consecutive Olympics.

John Naber was the United States’ most decorated Olympian at the 1976 Montreal Games, where he earned four gold medals in swimming, each in world-record time, as well as a silver medal. In so doing, he also became the first swimmer to earn two individual medals in the same day of Olympic competition.

Murray Rose Swimmer Murray Rose known as the “Seaweed Streak” because of his vegan diet — at one time held world records in the 400-, 800- and 1,500-meter freestyle. He was 17 years old when he made his Olympic debut in 1956 at the Melbourne Games, where he became the youngest man ever to win three gold medals. At the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, he garnered three more medals — gold, silver and bronze. Overall, he set 15 world records and holds the most Olympic medals of any Trojan.

“World’s Fastest Humans”

Charles “Charley” Paddock USC’s first “world’s fastest human,” Charles “Charley” Paddock earned the moniker “California Comet” for dominating the world of sprinting from 1919 to 1929. He set a total of 13 world and U.S. records — and his world record of 10.2 in the 100 meters, set in 1921, wasn’t equaled until 1932, and wasn’t broken until 1950. He competed in three Summer Olympics, taking home two gold medals and one silver from Antwerp in 1920 and a silver from Paris in 1924. (An aside: Paddock’s character was portrayed by actor Dennis Christopher in Chariots of Fire , the Oscar-winning 1981 film about the 1924 Olympic Games.)

Frank Wykoff Frank Wykoff inherited Paddock’s mantle in 1928, when he tied the world record in the 100-yard dash four times in a single afternoon during the Olympic trials. Wykoff set world records in three straight Olympic Games, running on gold medal-winning 4×100-meter relay teams in 1928, 1932 and 1936. His world record for the 100-yard dash stood until 1948, when it was broken by another USC sprinting star.

Mel Patton MS  Sprinter Mel Patton MS  nicknamed “Pell Mel,” became the third of USC’s “world’s fastest humans” when he broke Frank Wykoff’s longstanding record in the 100-yard dash in 1948 — a record that stood until 1962. Patton won two gold medals at the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.

Concurrent World Records

Janet Evans Four-time gold medalist and U.S. Olympic Hall-of-Famer Janet Evans held concurrent world records in the 400-meter, 800-meter and 1,500-meter freestyle, with her 800-meter time standing as a world record for 21 years.

Sharon Finneran Shannon Finneran (non-degreed, attended 1965-66) held concurrent world records in the 400-meter individual medley, 200-meter butterfly and 800-meter freestyle. She took home a silver medal in the 400-meter individual medley at the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo.

Trojans Competing in Multiple Olympic Sports

Conn Findlay Conn Findlay ’54 was one of few Olympians to earn medals in two distinct sports, won gold medals for rowing in 1956 (Melbourne) and 1964 (Tokyo), bronze for rowing in 1960 (Rome), and bronze for yachting in 1976 (Montreal). At the time, he was the only athlete to compete in four Olympics and win a medal each time out.

Robert “Bob” Hughes After competing in water polo in the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki, Robert “Bob” Hughes (non-degreed, attended 1954-57), helped the U.S. water polo team to a fifth-place finish in the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, while also participating in the 200-meter breaststroke. He was the first American athlete since Johnny Weissmuller (1924) to compete in two different sports during the same Olympics.

Wallace “Wally” Wolf Wallace “Wally” Wolf ’51, JD ’57 began his Olympic career in London in 1948, winning a gold medal as a member of the 4×200-meter relay team. He went on to compete in swimming in 1952 (Helsinki), and in water polo in 1956 (Melbourne) and 1960 (Rome).

Trojans Competing for Multiple Countries

Terry Place Brandel Terry Place Brandel (non-degreed, attended 1976-77) won a place on the U.S. volleyball team for the 1980 Moscow Olympics, then played for West Germany in Los Angeles in 1984.

Bjorn Zikarsky Swimmer Bjorn Zikarsky ’91 competed for West Germany in Seoul in 1988 and for Germany in Atlanta in 1996, when he won a bronze medal.

Aniko Pelle Water poloist Aniko Pelle competed for Hungary in 2004 and 2008 and Italy in 2012.

Trojan Olympic Families

Byron Black and Wayne Black  Playing for their native Zimbabwe, brothers Byron Black ’91 and Wayne Black (non-degreed) competed in tennis singles and doubles at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Wayne went on to play in 2000 (Sydney) and 2004 (Athens) as well.

Joe and Mike Bottom  At the 1977 NCAA championships, swimmer Joe Bottom ’77 became the first person to break the 20-second barrier in the 50-yard freestyle. He won a silver medal in the 100-meter butterfly at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. His younger brother Mike Bottom ’79 qualified for the U.S.-boycotted Moscow Summer Olympics in 1980 and later coached at USC.

Bruce and Steven Furniss Bruce Furniss ’79, who dominated the world of international swimming for 17 years, set 10 world records and won two Olympic gold medals — for the 200-meter freestyle and 4×200-meter freestyle relay — in Montreal in 1976. His older brother Steve Furniss ’76 won a bronze medal in Munich in 1972, and competed but did not medal in Montreal in 1976.

Allen and John “Sandy” Gilchrist Canadian swimmer Allen Gilchrist ’56 competed in the London Games in 1948 and the Helsinki Games in 1952; his brother John “Sandy” Gilchrist ’69, MBA ’71 swam in Tokyo in 1964 and Mexico City in 1968.

William Sr and Joyce Horton William Horton Sr. ’53 and daughter Joyce Horton Racker (non-degreed, attended 1953-54) competed in yachting at the 1952 Helsinki Games.

Lennox and Inger Miller Running for Jamaica, sprinter Lennox Miller ’69, DDS ’73 won a silver medal in Mexico City in 1968 and a bronze medal in Munich in 1972. His daughter Inger Miller ’95 took home gold for the United States in Atlanta in 1996. They were the first father-daughter pair to win Olympic track and field medals.

USC Olympians on the Silver Screen

In his 1927 film,  College , comedian Buster Keaton hired several USC Olympians for a series of track stunts, including one in which 1924 gold medal winner  Lee Barnes  (non-degreed, attended 1924-28) pole-vaulted into a second-story window. Barnes and teammates  Charles Borah  DDS ’29, MD ’35 (gold medal winner for the 4×100-meter relay in London in 1928),  Leighton Dye  ’26,  Clarence “Bud” Houser  DDS ’26 and  Morton Kaer  ’25 also performed Keaton’s cross-campus dash to save a damsel in distress.

Raised on a pineapple plantation in Hawaii,  Clarence “Buster” Crabbe  ’32 won the gold and also set an Olympic record in the 400-meter freestyle swim in Los Angeles in 1932. He later became known as “King of the Serials” for his starring roles as Tarzan, Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers.

Swimmer and six-time medalist  Murray Rose  ’62 went into acting following his Olympic career, appearing in the 1968 film  Ice Station Zebra  and the television series  The Patty Duke Show ,  Magnum, P.I. , and  Matlock , among others.

Pole vaulter  Bob Seagren  ’69 set an Olympic record when he won the gold in Mexico City in 1968. He had to settle for silver at the Munich Olympics in 1972, when a controversial decision banned a new model of pole used by the leading vaulters — marking the first time a U.S. athlete had not won the Olympic pole vault competition since the beginning of the Games. Seagren is also remembered for playing the character Dennis in the television series  Soap , and for co-hosting the Los Angeles edition of  P.M. Magazine .

More Iconic USC Olympians

Lindsay Benko Mintenko Two-time Olympic swimmer Lindsay Benko Mintenko ’99 was a member of the gold medal-winning 4×200-meter freestyle relay team at the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. In Athens in 2004, she won another gold, along with a silver.

Roy Cochran Although his athletic career had been interrupted by military service in World War II, Roy Cochran PhD ’50 took home two gold medals from the London Olympics in 1948, in the 4×400-meter relay and the 400-meter hurdles.

Cynthia Cooper-Dyke One of only 13 women to be inducted as players into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, Cynthia Cooper-Dyke (non-degreed, attended 1982-84 and 1985-86) was a member of the gold medal-winning U.S. Olympic women’s basketball team at the 1988 Seoul Olympics and the bronze-winning team at the 1992 Games in Barcelona.

Charlie Dumas At the U.S. Olympic trials in 1956, Charlie Dumas ’61 became the first human to high jump over seven feet. Although his Olympic height didn’t break the world record he had set in the trials, it was enough to win him the gold medal in Melbourne.

Michael Riley “Mickey Riley” Galitzen Diver Michael Riley “Mickey Riley” Galitzen (non-degreed, attended 1929-32) won silver and bronze medals at the Amsterdam Olympics in 1928, and gold and silver in Los Angeles in 1932.

Katinka Hosszu Swimming for her native Hungary, Katinka Hosszu ’12 competed in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2012 Olympics in London.

Bryan Ivie The most dominant collegiate men’s volleyball player of his era, Bryan Ivie (non-degreed) was a member of the U.S. men’s volleyball team that took home the bronze medal from the 1992 Barcelona Games. He also competed in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta.

Michael Larrabee Michael Larrabee ’57 became an Olympic champion at the age of 30, seven years after graduating from USC. At the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, he won gold medals in both the 400-meter dash and the 4×400-meter relay, helping set a new world record in the relay.

Miklos “Nick” Martin Hungarian-born Miklos “Nick” Martin ’59 won gold medals in water polo in Helsinki in 1952 and Melbourne in 1956. He defected from Hungary at the 1956 Olympic Games and became a U.S. citizen in 1962.

Oussama “Ous” Mellouli Tunisian swimmer Oussama “Ous” Mellouli ’07 competed in 2012 Olympics in London, where he won a gold medal in the open water Marathon Swimming 10K and a bronze medal indoors in the 1500-meter freestyle. He was also the gold medalist for the 1,500-meter freestyle at the 2008 Olympics in Beijing — becoming the first African male swimmer to win an Olympic gold medal in an individual swimming event. His win also marked the second gold medal his country had ever earned, 40 years after runner Mohamed Gammoundi won the 5000-meter race in the Mexico City Olympics. He previously competed in the 2000 Olympics in Sydney and the 2004 Olympics in Athens.

Cheryl Miller Cheryl Miller ’86 led the U.S. Olympic women’s basketball team to a gold medal at the Los Angeles Games in 1984. A three-time Naismith College Player of the Year, she coached two seasons at USC (1994-95) and ultimately pursued a broadcasting career.

Parry O’Brien Parry O’Brien ’54 won gold medals in the shot put at the 1952 Helsinki Games and the 1956 Melbourne Games, took home silver from Rome in 1960, and placed fourth in 1964 in Tokyo, where he also carried the U.S. flag during opening ceremonies. He held the world record going into the 1956 Olympics and became the first world record holder to win the shot put in Olympic competition since 1908 — a feat that would be repeated in 1964 by USC’s Dallas Long ’62, DDS ’66, who won a gold medal in Tokyo and set a new Olympic record at that time. (Long had previously won a bronze medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome.)

Donald “Don” Quarrie Despite being injured at the Mexico City Games in 1968 and again in Munich in 1972, Donald “Don” Quarrie ’74, MPA ’78 persevered, going on to compete in three more Summer Olympics. He won individual gold and silver medals in Montreal in 1976, and a bronze in Moscow in 1980. He took home a fourth medal, silver, as a member of the 4×100-meter relay team in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. In his hometown of Kingston, Jamaica, Quarrie’s statue stands proudly at the entrance to the National Stadium, and a high school also bears his name. At least two reggae tunes have been composed in his honor as well.

Kaitlin Sandeno At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Kaitlin Sandeno ’06 won the bronze medal in the 800-meter freestyle. She was a USC student during the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, where she took home three more medals: gold, silver and bronze.

Rebecca Soni Rebecca Soni ’09 first became an international swimming sensation while she was still a student at USC, winning a gold medal and two silvers at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. For the 2012 Olympics in London,  she won gold medals in the 200-meter breaststroke and as part of the 400-meter medley relay and a silver in the 100-meter breaststroke.

Tina Thompson Retired WNBA player Tina Thompson ’97 helped lead the U.S. Olympic women’s basketball teams to gold medals in Athens in 2004 and in Beijing in 2008. She had been a team alternate in 2000

Steve Timmons Almost as famous for his flaming red flattop haircut as for his athletic achievements, Steve Timmons (non-degreed) is the first American male to win three volleyball medals. He garnered a gold medal at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles, marking the first Olympic medal for the U.S. men’s team, a second gold in Seoul in 1988, and a bronze in Barcelona in 1992.

Quincy Watts Quincy Watts ’94 won gold medals for the 400-meter and 4×400-meter relay at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, setting an Olympic and USC record for the former.

Louis Zamperini As an 18-year-old, distance runner Louis Zamperini ’40 finished eighth in the 5,000-meter race at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. As a Trojan track star, he set a collegiate mile record that stood for 15 years. As a World War II bombardier, he crashed over the Pacific and drifted for 47 days on a life raft, only to be taken captive by the Japanese, held for over two years and declared legally dead. Zamperini’s larger-than-life saga is the subject of Laura Hillenbrand’s bestselling book  Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption .

Keena Rothhammer Zorovich When 15-year-old Keena Rothhammer Zorovich ’79 won a gold medal in the 800-meter freestyle at the 1972 Munich Games, she not only became the youngest swimmer ever to win a gold in that event, but also set a world record. She took home a bronze for the 200-meter freestyle as well.

USC’s Oldest Living Olympian

Iris Cummings Critchell USC’s oldest surviving Olympian is swimmerIris Cummings Critchell (born Dec. 21, 1920) from the 1936 Berlin Games. After being the nation’s top female swimmer in the 200m breaststroke from 1936 to 1939, she enrolled at USC in its first Civilian Pilot Training Program. She became an aviator.

Trojan Coaches at the Olympics

In addition to upholding a strong tradition of nurturing Olympic athletes at USC, Trojan coaches have a storied legacy of broader involvement with the Olympic Games. USC-affiliated coaches have served on the Olympic staff in a variety of capacities, and coached Olympic teams not only for the United States, but also for nations as far flung as Tunisia, in diverse sports ranging from diving to volleyball

Fred Cady Fred Cady — USC’s aquatics coach for more then 30 years, from the mid-1920s until his retirement in 1956 — coached the U.S. diving teams in four consecutive Olympiads: 1928 (Amsterdam), 1932 (Los Angeles), 1936 (Berlin) and 1948 (London).

Dean Cromwell Called “the maker of champions,” USC track coach Dean Cromwell produced Olympic champions in every Olympiad held from 1912 until his retirement in 1948. In addition, he was selected as an Olympic coach in 1928 (Amsterdam) and 1936 (Berlin), and as head coach in 1948 (London).

Peter Daland Coach Peter Daland led two U.S. swim teams in Olympic competition, the 1972 men’s team that won nine gold medals in Munich and the 1964 women’s squad that captured six of eight possible medals in Tokyo.

Rod Dedeaux Legendary USC baseball coach Rod Dedeaux led the U.S. Olympic baseball team in the 1984 Los Angeles Games. At the time, baseball had last been played as a demonstration sport in the 1964 Tokyo Games, where Dedeaux also coached the U.S. team — a team that included three Trojan athletes.

Howard Jones USC football coach Howard Jones, USC’s head football coach from 1925 to 1940, led the West Coast team to a 7-6 victory over the East Coast in demonstration football at the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles.

Neill Kohlhase Neill Kohlhase ’45, who coached USC water polo during the 1950s and 1960s, was the U.S. Olympic water polo coach in 1956 (Melbourne) and 1960 (Rome), when his teams placed fifth and sixth, respectively.

Mark Schubert Mark Schubert, who coached USC’s swim teams from 1992 to 2006, had his first stint as a U.S. Olympic swimming coach in 1980, for the U.S.-boycotted Moscow Games. He went on to coach again in 1984 (Los Angeles), 1988 (Seoul) and 1992 (Barcelona), was named head coach in 1996 (Atlanta), 2000 (Sydney) and 2004 (Athens), and continued his service as a member of the team staff in 2008 (Beijing).

Olympic Oaks at USC

At the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, competing athletes were given potted oak tree seedlings for the gold medals they won.  Ken Carpenter  ’39 (who won gold in the discus throw, breaking an Olympic record) and teammate  Foy Draper  ’36 (who, together with  Frank Wykoff  ’33, won gold and also set a new world record with the 400-meter-relay team) brought their trees back to USC, where they were planted in Associates Park. (The relay team’s tree, which died in 2002 from root rot, has since been replaced with another mature oak.)

USC, Los Angeles and the Olympic Games

Just as USC has a long and distinguished history of producing Olympic athletes and coaches, the University of Southern California is no stranger to the Olympic Games themselves. In 1932 and 1984, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum — right across the street from the University Park Campus — was the center of the competition.

Trojan athletic director (then called graduate manager)  Gwynn Wilson  served as associate manager of the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles.

John Argue  JD ’56, founding chairman of the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee, is widely regarded as the person responsible for bringing the 1984 Olympic Games to Los Angeles. (Incidentally, John Argue’s father,  Clifford Argue  ’24, LLB ’29, was a Trojan Olympian, competing in pentathlon during the 1924 Paris Games.)

The  University Park Campus was the site of the swimming and diving events during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles — and also served as host to the largest of the city’s three Olympic Villages. USC’s Cromwell Track and Field Stadium (today’s Allyson Felix Field and Katherine B. Loker Track Stadium) also was used as a training and warm-up facility.

Before officiating at the opening ceremonies for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, then U.S. President Ronald Reagan took up office in the suite of university administrator Anthony Lazzaro  ’49, USC’s chief liaison officer with the Los Angeles Olympics Organizing Committee.

Acclaimed producer  David Wolper  MFA ’49, producer of the groundbreaking 1977 miniseries  Roots , directed the opening and closing ceremonies for the Los Angeles Summer Olympics in 1984.

More Information USC Olympians: 1904 to 2018

Proposed North Carolina law would make it illegal to wear masks in public

Image: immunocompromised person

Republican senators in North Carolina passed a bill Wednesday revoking a pandemic-era law allowing for masks to be worn in public for health concerns.

The legislative proposal, dubbed the "Unmasking Mobs and Criminals" bill , was passed along party lines 30-15, despite outcries from some Senate Democrats to tweak it, allowing for the exception of using masks in public for anyone who feels their health or the health of their loved ones is compromised without them.

Most of the bill’s focus is on enhancing penalties for people wearing masks during crimes and intentionally blocking traffic during demonstrations.

“It’s about time that the craziness is ... at least slowed down, if not put to a stop,” Republican Sen. Buck Newton, who presented the bill, said on the Senate floor Wednesday.

He could not be reached for additional comment Thursday afternoon.

Democratic Sen. Natasha Marcus said Thursday the bill jeopardizes the health of the public and turns otherwise law-abiding people into criminals.

"It makes it a criminal act to wear a mask to protect yourself or others from communicable diseases," Marcus said.

She said she has heard from constituents who are "desperate for someone to listen to them when they say, 'I'm immunocompromised, or my family member is, or I'm going through chemotherapy, or I have a disability.' There are many reasons why people need to, and should have, the freedom to wear a mask to protect themselves."

The latest version of the bill, which goes back to the House, where it was initially proposed and could still be altered, would repeal "the health and safety exemption from certain laws prohibiting the wearing of masks in public."

"Individuals would no longer be able to wear masks in public for health or safety reasons," according to the bill.

The American Civil Liberties Union of North Carolina opposes the bill, which it called "deeply troubling, un-democratic, and, unconstitutional." The organization said the bill is a response to "pro-Palestine protests on college campuses."

"When we look at the conduct the legislators point to in support of the bill — trespass, assault on law enforcement, and damage to public property — we know that those things are already illegal. Since that is the case, what is this bill really about?" the statement said, adding that it is "about suppressing dissent."

Proponents of the bill have argued it is needed in response to the demonstrations that escalated to police clashes and arrests, including those at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Protests and encampments have popped up at college campuses since Hamas attacked Israel in October. While most campus demonstrations have remained peaceful, there have been violent confrontations at times between police and protesters, some of whom have worn surgical-style masks.

Newton on Tuesday brushed off concerns that getting rid of pandemic-era exemptions for masks was overly broad, saying he expects authorities to use “good common sense.”

“We didn’t see Granny getting arrested in the Walmart pre-Covid,” he said as he presented the bill in the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Marcus said Thursday it's not right to put the onus on law enforcement to use discretion.

"That’s not how the criminal law is supposed to work. It’s either a crime or it’s not," she said, adding that the bill's passage in the Senate by Republicans is nothing more than a culture war vote.

"They are clearly trying to feed red meat to their anti-vax, anti-science, anti-mask base with this bill," Marcus said. "I do think it was initially sparked by student protests on various campuses across our state. But the fact is if they just wanted to address those student protests, they did not need to ban masks for everyone."

The masking bill is likely to move through a few committees before it hits the House floor, which could take one or two weeks, according to House Rules Committee Chairman Destin Hall.

Republicans have a super-majority in both the House and the Senate. Marcus said she hopes that if the bill passes the House, Gov. Roy Cooper, a Democrat, vetoes it.

No one with Cooper's office could immediately be reached for comment Thursday afternoon.

The  health exemption was added  at the start of the Covid-19 pandemic along largely bipartisan lines.

The repeal would return public masking rules to their pre-pandemic form — created in 1953 to address a different issue: limiting Ku Klux Klan activity in North Carolina, according to a  2012 book  by Washington University in St. Louis sociology professor David Cunningham.

Stacy Staggs, 47, of Charlotte, has 10-year-old twin daughters who are immunocompromised because they were born prematurely.

One of the twins was on a ventilator for 88 days after she was born, giving her chronic lung disease, and has had a tracheostomy, a procedure to open the trachea to help her breathe better, Staggs said Thursday.

"Things that hit us a little bit hit her very hard and take weeks or months to recover from," she said.

Staggs said she wears a mask, as do her daughters, every time they are out in public.

"I am beside myself. I can’t imagine that we’ve got to a place where protecting individual health and safety is a criminal act," she said. "There’s nothing criminal about my lifestyle or actions."

Antonio Planas is a breaking news reporter for NBC News Digital. 

usc law tour

The Associated Press

usc law tour

What to know about Mohammad Mokhber, who is stepping in as interim president of Iran

Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi, Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian and several other government officials were killed in a helicopter crash on Sunday, leaving the country in leadership limbo at a time of especially high regional tensions .

After their deaths were confirmed by state media on Monday, Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei — who is the highest-ranking political and religious leader in the republic — announced five days of mourning and a new interim president: Mohammad Mokhber.

The president is Iran's second-ranking — but top-elected — official. Mokhber is expected to hold that role temporarily since Iran's constitution requires that a new election must be held within 50 days of the death of a sitting president.

Robin Wright, a joint fellow at the U.S. Institute of Peace and the Wilson Center, says Raisi's death may not shake up the day-to-day running of the country, but rather its longer-term future, as the hardliner was widely considered a potential successor to 85-year-old Khamenei.

"There will be a process that's in place, they will find a new president, but the scramble behind the scenes will be very, very interesting," she told Morning Edition .

Mokhber, 68, is part of the three-person council charged with organizing that election.

At a Monday meeting, he urged top Iranian officials to continue their work without disruption, the Washington Post reported .

"The framework and foundations of the system are strong, and there will not be the slightest problem in the administration of the country under the permanent shadow of the leadership," Mokhber said.

He most recently served as first vice president of Iran, the most senior of a dozen such positions. He's kept a relatively low profile despite holding a series of prominent roles in Iran's government and charitable foundations, including those with ties to Khamenei, and has been sanctioned by both the U.S. and European Union.

Here's what else to know about him.

His tenure as top deputy included a wartime visit to Moscow

Mokhber, who holds a Ph.D. in international law, was appointed first vice president when Raisi was elected in 2021.

According to the revised Iranian constitution of 1989, the president's first deputy can be tasked with "the responsibilities of administering the affairs of the Council of Ministers and coordination of functions of other deputies," with the president's approval.

The first vice president will also assume — with the approval of the supreme leader — the "powers and functions" of the president in the case of their death, dismissal or absence.

"The Council, consisting of the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, head of the judicial power, and the first deputy of the President, is obliged to arrange for a new President to be elected within a maximum period of fifty days," reads Article 131.

In his role as first vice president, Mokhber traveled within Iran to shore up political support, including visiting the site of a 2022 building collapse that killed dozens and fueled accusations of corruption against those involved in the permitting process. He also had a hand in international diplomacy, receiving visiting leaders from places like Syria and China .

Vice presidents tend to hold a relatively low profile in Iran, though Mokhber did generate some headlines during his tenure.

He was part of a team of Iranian security officials who visited Moscow in October 2022, months into Russia's war with Ukraine, to discuss weapons deliveries. Reuters reported that the group agreed to provide more surface-to-surface missiles and drones to Russia's military .

The Washington Post reported that during that visit, Mokhber blamed NATO for the killing of Ukrainians and proposed an Iranian-Russian working group to undermine Western sanctions.

"We have been under these sanctions for 40 years and did not allow them to undermine the government of the country or to seriously affect us," he said of Iran, suggesting they had much to teach Moscow.

Mokhber was a key player in a network of charities with ties to the state

Mokhber's official biography touts his "experience in numerous management positions," including with several foundations and the production of Iran's first COVID-19 vaccine.

Mokhber has played a key role in several charitable trusts tied to the Iranian state, known as bonyads .

The U.S. Treasury Department has described them as "opaque, quasi-official organizations generally controlled by current and former government officials and clerics that report directly to the Supreme Leader." It says a lack of accountability has "allowed systemic corruption and mismanagement to grow unchecked," accumulating wealth without benefiting the Iranian people as promised.

United Against Nuclear Iran , a U.S.-based nonprofit advocacy organization, says Mokhber spent a large part of his career working at "important Bonyads implicated in Iran's ballistic missile and nuclear programs, terrorism, corruption, mismanagement, human rights violations, and sanctions evasion."

Mokhber was most recently the head of Setad, an investment fund linked to Khamenei. Its full name is Setad Ejraiye Farmane Hazrate Emam, also known as the Execution of Imam Khomeini's Order (EIKO). It was established by Khamenei's predecessor and derives many of its assets from property seized from Iranian citizens, according to Reuters .

Mokhber joined Setad as its chief executive in 2007. The U.S. imposed sanctions on the organization in 2013, calling it a "massive network of front companies hiding assets on behalf of the Government of Iran's leadership."

Years later, during the height of the pandemic, Mokhber oversaw Setad's effort to make a COVID-19 vaccine, through one of its foundations. The Associated Press says "only a fraction" of its promised tens of millions of doses "ever made it to the public, without explanation."

The U.S. sanctioned Setad — which it calls EIKO — again, along with Mokhber personally, in 2021.

"EIKO has systematically violated the rights of dissidents by confiscating land and property from opponents of the regime, including political opponents, religious minorities, and exiled Iranians, while, according to its leader Mohammad Mokhber, being tasked by the Supreme Leader to implement a resistance economy," the Treasury Department said at the time, describing an economy that tries to circumvent sanctions.

Mokhber was also among a group of seven Iranians that the European Union sanctioned in 2010 for involvement in "nuclear or ballistic missiles activities." He was removed from the list two years later.

Mokhber has also held senior roles in Sina Bank and the Mostazafan Foundation, both of which have been subject to U.S. sanctions.

The Treasury Department has said Khameini uses the Mostazafan Foundation — a conglomerate of holdings in key sectors including finance, energy and mining — to "reward his allies under the pretense of charity."

During Mokhber's tenure at Mostazafan, he ended up embroiled in a legal battle between two mobile phone service providers — Turkcell and MTN — looking to enter the Iranian market, the AP reports . Turkcell ultimately alleged in legal filings that Mokhber used "improper influence up to and including negotiating with and on behalf of the Supreme Leader in MTN's favor."

Mokhber also joined Iran's Expediency Council in 2022. The group advises the supreme leader and settles disputes over legislation between Iran's parliament and the Guardian Council , which consists of six experts in Islamic law and six experts in constitutional law.

"If his past is any indication of his future, his current role in the elected branch of government will be used to perpetuate corruption, implement a resistance economy, and punish regime enemies," says United Against Nuclear Iran.

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The Possible Collapse of the U.S. Home Insurance System

A times investigation found climate change may now be a concern for every homeowner in the country..

This transcript was created using speech recognition software. While it has been reviewed by human transcribers, it may contain errors. Please review the episode audio before quoting from this transcript and email [email protected] with any questions.

From “The New York Times,” I’m Sabrina Tavernise. And this is “The Daily.”


Today, my colleague, Christopher Flavelle, on a “Times” investigation into one of the least known and most consequential effects of climate change — insurance — and why it may now be a concern for every homeowner in the country.

It’s Wednesday, May 15.

So, Chris, you and I talked a while ago about how climate change was really wreaking havoc in the insurance market in Florida. You’ve just done an investigation that takes a look into the insurance markets more broadly and more deeply. Tell us about it.

Yeah, so I cover climate change, in particular the way climate shocks affect different parts of American life. And insurance has become a really big part of that coverage. And Florida is a great example. As hurricanes have gotten worse and more frequent, insurers are paying out more and more money to rebuild people’s homes. And that’s driving up insurance costs and ultimately driving up the cost of owning a home in Florida.

So we’re already seeing that climate impact on the housing market in Florida. My colleagues and I started to think, well, could it be that that kind of disruption is also happening in other states, not just in the obvious coastal states but maybe even through the middle of the US? So we set out to find out just how much it is happening, how much that Florida turmoil has, in fact, become really a contagion that is spreading across the country.

So how did you go about reporting this? I mean, where did you start?

All we knew at the start of this was that there was reason to think this might be a problem. If you just look at how the federal government tracks disasters around the country, there’s been a big increase almost every year in the number and severity of all kinds of disasters around the country. So we thought, OK, it’s worth trying to find out, what does that mean for insurers?

The problem is getting data on the insurance industry is actually really hard. There’s no federal regulation. There’s no government agency you can go to that holds this data. If you talk to the insurers directly, they tend to be a little reluctant to share information about what they’re going through. So we weren’t sure where to go until, finally, we realized the best people to ask are the people whose job it is to gauge the financial health of insurance companies.

Those are rating agencies. In particular, there’s one rating company called AM Best, whose whole purpose is to tell investors how healthy an insurance company is.

Whoa. So this is way down in the nuts and bolts of the US insurance industry.

Right. This is a part of the broader economy that most people would never experience. But we asked them to do something special for us. We said, hey, can you help us find the one number that would tell us reporters just how healthy or unhealthy this insurance market is state by state over time? And it turns out, there is just such a number. It’s called a combined ratio.

OK, plain English?

Plain English, it is the ratio of revenue to costs, how much money these guys take in for homeowner’s insurance and how much they pay out in costs and losses. You want your revenue to be higher than your costs. If not, you’re in trouble.

So what did you find out?

Well, we got that number for every state, going back more than a decade. And what it showed us was our suspicions were right. This market turmoil that we were seeing in Florida and California has indeed been spreading across the country. And in fact, it turns out that in 18 states, last year, the homeowner’s insurance market lost money. And that’s a big jump from 5 or 10 years ago and spells real trouble for insurance and for homeowners and for almost every part of the economy.

So the contagion was real.

Right. This is our first window showing us just how far that contagion had spread. And one of the really striking things about this data was it showed the contagion had spread to places that I wouldn’t have thought of as especially prone to climate shocks — for example, a lot of the Midwest, a lot of the Southeast. In fact, if you think of a map of the country, there was no state between Pennsylvania and the Dakotas that didn’t lose money on homeowner’s insurance last year.

So just huge parts of the middle of the US have become unprofitable for homeowner’s insurance. This market is starting to buckle under the cost of climate change.

And this is all happening really fast. When we did the Florida episode two years ago, it was a completely new phenomenon and really only in Florida. And now it’s everywhere.

Yeah. And that’s exactly what’s so striking here. The rate at which this is becoming, again, a contagion and spreading across the country is just demolishing the expectations of anyone I’ve spoken to. No one thought that this problem would affect so much of the US so quickly.

So in these states, these new places that the contagion has spread to, what exactly is happening that’s causing the insurance companies to fold up shop?

Yeah. Something really particular is happening in a lot of these states. And it’s worth noting how it’s surprised everyone. And what that is, is formally unimportant weather events, like hailstorms or windstorms, those didn’t used to be the kind of thing that would scare insurance companies. Obviously, a big problem if it destroys your home or damages your home. But for insurers, it wasn’t going to wipe them out financially.

Right. It wasn’t just a complete and utter wipeout that the company would then have to pony up a lot of money for.

Exactly. And insurers call them secondary perils, sort of a belittling term, something other than a big deal, like a hurricane.

These minor league weather events.

Right. But those are becoming so frequent and so much more intense that they can cause existential threats for insurance companies. And insurers are now fleeing states not because of hurricanes but because those former things that were small are now big. Hailstorms, wildfires in some places, previous annoyances are becoming real threats to insurers.

Chris, what’s the big picture on what insurers are actually facing? What’s happening out there numbers-wise?

This is a huge threat. In terms of the number of states where this industry is losing money, it’s more than doubled from 10 years ago to basically a third of the country. The amount they’re losing is enormous. In some states, insurers are paying out $1.25 or even $1.50 for every dollar they bring in, in revenue, which is totally unsustainable.

And the result is insurers are making changes. They are pulling back from these markets. They’re hiking premiums. And often, they’re just dropping customers. And that’s where this becomes real, not just for people who surf balance sheets and trade in the stock market. This is becoming real for homeowners around the country, who all of a sudden increasingly can’t get insurance.

So, Chris, what’s the actual implication? I mean, what happens when people in a state can’t get insurance for their homes?

Getting insurance for a home is crucial if you want to sell or buy a home. Most people can’t buy a home without a mortgage. And banks won’t issue a mortgage without home insurance. So if you’ve got a home that insurance company doesn’t want to cover, you got a real problem. You need to find insurance, or that home becomes very close to unsellable.

And as you get fewer buyers, the price goes down. So this doesn’t just hurt people who are paying for these insurance premiums. It hurts people who want to sell their homes. It even could hurt, at some point, whole local economies. If home values fall, governments take in less tax revenue. That means less money for schools and police. It also means people who get hit by disasters and have to rebuild their homes all of a sudden can’t, because their insurance isn’t available anymore. It’s hard to overstate just how big a deal this is.

And is that actually happening, Chris? I mean, are housing markets being dragged down because of this problem with the insurance markets right now?

Anecdotally, we’ve got reports that in places like Florida and Louisiana and maybe in parts of California, the difficulty of getting insurance, the crazy high cost of insurance is starting to depress demand because not everyone can afford to pay these really high costs, even if they have insurance. But what we wanted to focus on with this story was also, OK, we know where this goes eventually. But where is it beginning? What are the places that are just starting to feel these shocks from the insurance market?

And so I called around and asked insurance agents, who are the front lines of this. They’re the ones who are struggling to find insurance for homeowners. And I said, hey, is there one place that I should go if I want to understand what it looks like to homeowners when all of a sudden insurance becomes really expensive or you can’t even find it? And those insurance agents told me, if you want to see what this looks like in real life, go to a little town called Marshalltown in the middle of Iowa.

We’ll be right back.

So, Chris, you went to Marshalltown, Iowa. What did you find?

Even before I got to Marshalltown, I had some idea I was in the right spot. When I landed in Des Moines and went to rent a car, the nice woman at the desk who rented me a car, she said, what are you doing here? I said, I’m here to write a story about people in Iowa who can’t get insurance because of storms. She said, oh, yeah, I know all about that. That’s a big problem here.

Even the rental car lady.

Even the rental car lady knew something was going on. And so I got into my rental car and drove about an hour northeast of Des Moines, through some rolling hills, to this lovely little town of Marshalltown. Marshalltown is a really cute, little Midwestern town with old homes and a beautiful courthouse in the town square. And when I drove through, I couldn’t help noticing all the roofs looked new.

What does that tell you?

Turns out Marshalltown, despite being a pastoral image of Midwestern easy living, was hit by two really bad disasters in recent years — first, a devastating tornado in 2018 and then, in 2020, what’s called a derecho, a straight-line wind event that’s also just enormously damaging. And the result was lots of homes in this small town got severely damaged in a short period of time. And so when you drive down, you see all these new roofs that give you the sense that something’s going on.

So climate had come to Marshalltown?

Exactly. A place that had previously seemed maybe safe from climate change, if there is such a thing, all of a sudden was not. So I found an insurance agent in Marshalltown —

We talked to other agents but haven’t talked to many homeowners.

— named Bobby Shomo. And he invited me to his office early one morning and said, come meet some people. And so I parked on a quiet street outside of his office, across the street from the courthouse, which also had a new roof, and went into his conference room and met a procession of clients who all had versions of the same horror story.

It was more — well more of double.

A huge reduction in coverage with a huge price increase.

Some people had faced big premium hikes.

I’m just a little, small business owner. So every little bit I do feel.

They had so much trouble with their insurance company.

I was with IMT Insurance forever. And then when I moved in 2020, Bobby said they won’t insure a pool.

Some people had gotten dropped.

Where we used to see carriers canceling someone for frequency of three or four or five claims, it’s one or two now.

Some people couldn’t get the coverage they needed. But it was versions of the same tale, which is all of a sudden, having homeowner’s insurance in Marshalltown was really difficult. But I wanted to see if it was bigger than just Marshalltown. So the next day, I got back in my car and drove east to Cedar Rapids, where I met another person having a version of the same problem, a guy named Dave Langston.

Tell me about Dave.

Dave lives in a handsome, modest, little townhouse on a quiet cul-de-sac on a hill at the edge of Cedar Rapids. He’s the president of his homeowners association. There’s 17 homes on this little street. And this is just as far as you could get from a danger zone. It looks as safe as could be. But in January, they got a letter from the company that insures him and his neighbors, saying his policy was being canceled, even though it wasn’t as though they’d just been hit by some giant storm.

So then what was the reason they gave?

They didn’t give a reason. And I think people might not realize, insurers don’t have to give a reason. Insurance policies are year to year. And if your insurance company decides that you’re too much of a risk or your neighborhood is too much of a risk or your state is too much of a risk, they can just leave. They can send you a letter saying, forget it. We’re canceling your insurance. There’s almost no protection people have.

And in this case, the reason was that this insurance company was losing too much money in Iowa and didn’t want to keep on writing homeowner’s insurance in the state. That was the situation that Dave shared with tens of thousands of people across the state that were all getting similar letters.

What made Dave’s situation a little more challenging was that he couldn’t get new insurance. He tried for months through agent after agent after agent. And every company told him the same thing. We won’t cover you. Even though these homes are perfectly safe in a safe part of the state, nobody would say yes. And it took them until basically two days before their insurance policy was going to run out until they finally found new coverage that was far more expensive and far more bare-bones than what they’d had.

But at least it was something.

It was something. But the problem was it wasn’t that good. Under this new policy, if Dave’s street got hit by another big windstorm, the damage from that storm and fixing that damage would wipe out all the savings set aside by these homeowners. The deductible would be crushingly high — $120,000 — to replace those roofs if the worst happened because the insurance money just wouldn’t cover anywhere close to the cost of rebuilding.

He said to me, we didn’t do anything wrong. This is just what insurance looks like today. And today, it’s us in Cedar Rapids. Everyone, though, is going to face a situation like this eventually. And Dave is right. I talked to insurance agents around the country. And they confirmed for me that this kind of a shift towards a new type of insurance, insurance that’s more expensive and doesn’t cover as much and makes it harder to rebuild after a big disaster, it’s becoming more and more common around the country.

So, Chris, if Dave and the people you spoke to in Iowa were really evidence that your hunch was right, that the problem is spreading and rapidly, what are the possible fixes here?

The fix that people seem most hopeful about is this idea that, what if you could reduce the risk and cause there to be less damage in the first place? So what some states are doing is they’re trying to encourage homeowners to spend more money on hardening their home or adding a new roof or, if it’s a wildfire zone, cut back the vegetation, things that can reduce your risk of having really serious losses. And to help pay for that, they’re telling insurers, you’ve got to offer a discount to people who do that.

And everyone who works in this field says, in theory, that’s the right approach. The problem is, number one, hardening a home costs a fantastic amount of money. So doing this at scale is hugely expensive. Number two, it takes a long time to actually get enough homes hardened in this way that you can make a real dent for insurance companies. We’re talking about years or probably decades before that has a real effect, if it ever works.

OK. So that sounds not particularly realistic, given the urgency and the timeline we’re on here. So what else are people looking at?

Option number two is the government gets involved. And instead of most Americans buying home insurance from a private company, they start buying it from government programs that are designed to make sure that people, even in risky places, can still buy insurance. That would be just a gargantuan undertaking. The idea of the government providing homeowner’s insurance because private companies can’t or won’t would lead to one of the biggest government programs that exists, if we could even do it.

So huge change, like the federal government actually trying to write these markets by itself by providing homeowner’s insurance. But is that really feasible?

Well, in some areas, we’re actually already doing it. The government already provides flood insurance because for decades, most private insurers have not wanted to cover flood. It’s too risky. It’s too expensive. But that change, with governments taking over that role, creates a new problem of its own because the government providing flood insurance that you otherwise couldn’t get means people have been building and building in flood-prone areas because they know they can get that guaranteed flood insurance.

Interesting. So that’s a huge new downside. The government would be incentivizing people to move to places that they shouldn’t be.

That’s right. But there’s even one more problem with that approach of using the government to try to solve this problem, which is these costs keep growing. The number of billion-dollar disasters the US experiences every year keeps going up. And at some point, even if the government pays the cost through some sort of subsidized insurance, what happens when that cost is so great that we can no longer afford to pay it? That’s the really hard question that no official can answer.

So that’s pretty doomsday, Chris. Are we looking at the end of insurance?

I think it’s fair to say that we’re looking at the end of insurance as we know it, the end of insurance that means most Americans can rest assured that if they get hit by a disaster, their insurance company will provide enough money they can rebuild. That idea might be going away. And what it shows is maybe the threat of climate change isn’t quite what we thought.

Maybe instead of climate change wrecking communities in the form of a big storm or a wildfire or a flood, maybe even before those things happen, climate change can wreck communities by something as seemingly mundane and even boring as insurance. Maybe the harbinger of doom is not a giant storm but an anodyne letter from your insurance company, saying, we’re sorry to inform you we can no longer cover your home.

Maybe the future of climate change is best seen not by poring over weather data from NOAA but by poring over spreadsheets from rating firms, showing the profitability from insurance companies, and how bit by bit, that money that they’re losing around the country tells its own story. And the story is these shocks are actually already here.

Chris, as always, terrifying to talk to you.

Always a pleasure, Sabrina.

Here’s what else you should know today. On Tuesday, the United Nations has reclassified the number of women and children killed in Gaza, saying that it does not have enough identifying information to know exactly how many of the total dead are women and children. The UN now estimates that about 5,000 women and about 8,000 children have been killed, figures that are about half of what it was previously citing. The UN says the numbers dropped because it is using a more conservative estimate while waiting for information on about 10,000 other dead Gazans who have not yet been identified.

And Mike Johnson, the Speaker of the House, gave a press conference outside the court in Lower Manhattan, where Michael Cohen, the former fixer for Donald Trump, was testifying for a second day, answering questions from Trump’s lawyers. Trump is bound by a gag order. So Johnson joined other stand-ins for the former president to discredit the proceedings. Johnson, one of the most important Republicans in the country, attacked Cohen but also the trial itself, calling it a sham and political theater.

Today’s episode was produced by Nina Feldman, Shannon Lin, and Jessica Cheung. It was edited by MJ Davis Lin, with help from Michael Benoist, contains original music by Dan Powell, Marion Lozano, and Rowan Niemisto, and was engineered by Alyssa Moxley. Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly.

That’s it for “The Daily.” I’m Sabrina Tavernise. See you tomorrow.

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Hosted by Sabrina Tavernise

Featuring Christopher Flavelle

Produced by Nina Feldman ,  Shannon M. Lin and Jessica Cheung

Edited by MJ Davis Lin

With Michael Benoist

Original music by Dan Powell ,  Marion Lozano and Rowan Niemisto

Engineered by Alyssa Moxley

Listen and follow The Daily Apple Podcasts | Spotify | Amazon Music | YouTube

Across the United States, more frequent extreme weather is starting to cause the home insurance market to buckle, even for those who have paid their premiums dutifully year after year.

Christopher Flavelle, a climate reporter, discusses a Times investigation into one of the most consequential effects of the changes.

On today’s episode

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Christopher Flavelle , a climate change reporter for The New York Times.

A man in glasses, dressed in black, leans against the porch in his home on a bright day.

Background reading

As American insurers bleed cash from climate shocks , homeowners lose.

See how the home insurance crunch affects the market in each state .

Here are four takeaways from The Times’s investigation.

There are a lot of ways to listen to The Daily. Here’s how.

We aim to make transcripts available the next workday after an episode’s publication. You can find them at the top of the page.

Christopher Flavelle contributed reporting.

The Daily is made by Rachel Quester, Lynsea Garrison, Clare Toeniskoetter, Paige Cowett, Michael Simon Johnson, Brad Fisher, Chris Wood, Jessica Cheung, Stella Tan, Alexandra Leigh Young, Lisa Chow, Eric Krupke, Marc Georges, Luke Vander Ploeg, M.J. Davis Lin, Dan Powell, Sydney Harper, Mike Benoist, Liz O. Baylen, Asthaa Chaturvedi, Rachelle Bonja, Diana Nguyen, Marion Lozano, Corey Schreppel, Rob Szypko, Elisheba Ittoop, Mooj Zadie, Patricia Willens, Rowan Niemisto, Jody Becker, Rikki Novetsky, John Ketchum, Nina Feldman, Will Reid, Carlos Prieto, Ben Calhoun, Susan Lee, Lexie Diao, Mary Wilson, Alex Stern, Dan Farrell, Sophia Lanman, Shannon Lin, Diane Wong, Devon Taylor, Alyssa Moxley, Summer Thomad, Olivia Natt, Daniel Ramirez and Brendan Klinkenberg.

Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly. Special thanks to Sam Dolnick, Paula Szuchman, Lisa Tobin, Larissa Anderson, Julia Simon, Sofia Milan, Mahima Chablani, Elizabeth Davis-Moorer, Jeffrey Miranda, Renan Borelli, Maddy Masiello, Isabella Anderson and Nina Lassam.

Christopher Flavelle is a Times reporter who writes about how the United States is trying to adapt to the effects of climate change. More about Christopher Flavelle



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