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Motion sickness

Travel sickness.

Peer reviewed by Dr Hayley Willacy, FRCGP Last updated by Dr Colin Tidy, MRCGP Last updated 16 Mar 2023

Meets Patient’s editorial guidelines

In this series: Health advice for travel abroad Travelling to remote locations Ears and flying Jet lag Altitude sickness

Motion sickness (travel sickness) is common, especially in children. It is caused by repeated unusual movements during travelling, which send strong (sometimes confusing) signals to the balance and position sensors in the brain.

In this article :

What causes motion sickness, how long does motion sickness last, motion sickness symptoms, how to stop motion sickness, natural treatments for motion sickness, motion sickness medicines, what can a doctor prescribe for motion sickness, what should i do if i'm actually sick, what is mal de debarquement syndrome.

Continue reading below

Motion sickness is a normal response to repeated movements, such as going over bumps or around in a circle, send lots of messages to your brain. If you are inside a vehicle, particularly if you are focused on things that are inside the vehicle with you then the signals that your eyes send to the brain may tell it that your position is not changing, whilst your balance mechanisms say otherwise.

Your balance mechanisms in your inner ears sense different signals to those that your eyes are seeing which then sends your brain mixed, confusing messages. This confusion between messages then causes people to experience motion sickness.

Is motion sickness normal?

Motion sickness is a normal response that anyone can have when experiencing real or perceived motion. Although all people can develop motion sickness if exposed to sufficiently intense motion, some people are rarely affected while other people are more susceptible and have to deal with motion sickness very often.

Triggers for motion sickness

Motion sickness can also be triggered by anxiety or strong smells, such as food or petrol. Sometimes trying to read a book or a map can trigger motion sickness. Both in children and adults, playing computer games can sometimes cause motion sickness to occur.

Motion sickness is more common in children and also in women. Fortunately, many children grow out of having motion sickness. It is not known why some people develop motion sickness more than others. Symptoms can develop in cars, trains, planes and boats and on amusement park rides, etc.

Symptoms typically go when the journey is over; however, not always. In some people they last a few hours, or even days, after the journey ends.

There are various symptoms of motion sickness including::

Feeling sick (nausea and vomiting).

Sweating and cold sweats.

Increase in saliva.

Headaches .

Feeling cold and going pale.

Feeling weak.

Some general tips to avoid motion sickness include the following.

Prepare for your journey

Don't eat a heavy meal before travelling. Light, carbohydrate-based food like cereals an hour or two before you travel is best.

On long journeys, try breaking the journey to have some fresh air, drink some cold water and, if possible, take a short walk.

For more in-depth advice on travelling generally, see the separate leaflets called Health Advice for Travel Abroad , Travelling to Remote Locations , Ears and Flying (Aeroplane Ear) , Jet Lag and Altitude Sickness .

Plan where you sit

Keep motion to a minimum. For example, sit in the front seat of a car, over the wing of a plane, or on deck in the middle of a boat.

On a boat, stay on deck and avoid the cafeteria or sitting where your can smell the engines.

Breathe fresh air

Breathe fresh air if possible. For example, open a car window.

Avoid strong smells, particularly petrol and diesel fumes. This may mean closing the window and turning on the air conditioning, or avoiding the engine area in a boat.

Use your eyes and ears differently

Close your eyes (and keep them closed for the whole journey). This reduces 'positional' signals from your eyes to your brain and reduces the confusion.

Don't try to read.

Try listening to an audio book with your eyes closed. There is some evidence that distracting your brain with audio signals can reduce your sensitivity to the motion signals.

Try to sleep - this works mainly because your eyes are closed, but it is possible that your brain is able to ignore some motion signals when you are asleep.

Do not read or watch a film.

It is advisable not to watch moving objects such as waves or other cars. Don't look at things your brain expects to stay still, like a book inside the car. Instead, look ahead, a little above the horizon, at a fixed place.

If you are the driver you are less likely to feel motion sickness. This is probably because you are constantly focused on the road ahead and attuned to the movements that you expect the vehicle to make. If you are not, or can't be, the driver, sitting in the front and watching what the driver is watching can be helpful.

Treat your tummy gently

Avoid heavy meals and do not drink alcohol before and during travelling. It may also be worth avoiding spicy or fatty food.

Try to 'tame your tummy' with sips of a cold water or a sweet, fizzy drink. Cola or ginger ale are recommended.

Try alternative treatments

Sea-Bands® are acupressure bands that you wear on your wrists to put pressure on acupressure points that Chinese medicine suggests affects motion sickness. Some people find that they are effective.

Homeopathic medicines seem to help some people, and will not make you drowsy. The usual homeopathic remedy is called 'nux vom'. Follow the instructions on the packet.

All the techniques above which aim to prevent motion sickness will also help reduce it once it has begun. Other techniques, which are useful on their own to treat motion sickness but can also be used with medicines if required, are:

Breathe deeply and slowly and, while focusing on your breathing, listening to music. This has been proved to be effective in clinical trials.

Ginger - can improve motion sickness in some people (as a biscuit or sweet, or in a drink).

There are several motion sickness medicines available which can reduce, or prevent, symptoms of motion sickness. You can buy them from pharmacies or, in some cases, get them on prescription. They work by interfering with the nerve signals described above.

Medicines are best taken before the journey. They may still help even if you take them after symptoms have begun, although once you feel sick you won't absorb medicines from the stomach very well. So, at this point, tablets that you put against your gums, or skin patches, are more likely to be effective.

Hyoscine is usually the most effective medicine for motion sickness . It is also known as scopolamine. It works by preventing the confusing nerve messages going to your brain.

There are several brands of medicines which contain hyoscine - they also come in a soluble form for children. You should take a dose 30-60 minutes before a journey; the effect can last up to 72 hours. Hyoscine comes as a patch for people aged 10 years or over. (This is only available on prescription - see below.) Side-effects of hyoscine include dry mouth , drowsiness and blurred vision.

Side-effects of motion sickness medicines

Some medicines used for motion sickness may cause drowsiness. Some people are extremely sensitive to this and may find that they are so drowsy that they can't function properly at all. For others the effects may be milder but can still impair your reactions and alertness. It is therefore advisable not to drive and not to operate heavy machinery if you have taken them. In addition, some medicines may interfere with alcohol or other medication; your doctor or the pharmacist can advise you about this.


Antihistamines can also be useful , although they are not quite as effective as hyoscine. However, they usually cause fewer side-effects. Several types of antihistamine are sold for motion sickness. All can cause drowsiness, although some are more prone to cause it than others; for example, promethazine , which may be of use for young children on long journeys, particularly tends to cause drowsiness. Older children or adults may prefer one that is less likely to cause drowsiness - for example, cinnarizine or cyclizine.

Remember, if you give children medicines which cause drowsiness they can sometimes be irritable when the medicines wear off.

See the separate article called How to manage motion sickness .

There are a number of anti-sickness medicines which can only be prescribed by your doctor. Not all of them always work well for motion sickness, and finding something that works may be a case of trial and error. All of them work best taken up to an hour before your journey, and work less well if used when you already feel sick. See also the separate leaflet called Nausea (Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment) for more detailed information about these medicines .

Hyoscine patch

Hyoscine, or scopolamine, patches are suitable for adults and for children over 10 years old. The medicine is absorbed through your skin, although this method of medicine delivery is slow so the patch works best if applied well before your journey.

You should stick the patch on to the skin behind the ear 5-6 hours before travelling (often this will mean late on the previous night) and remove it at the end of the journey.


Prochlorperazine is a prescription-only medicine which works by changing the actions of the chemicals that control the tendency to be sick (vomit), in your brain. One form of prochlorperazine is Buccastem®, which is absorbed through your gums and does not need to be swallowed. Buccastem® tastes rather bitter but it can be effective for sickness when you are already feeling sick, as it doesn't have to be absorbed by the stomach.


Metoclopramide is a tablet used to speed up the emptying of your tummy. Slow emptying of the tummy is something that happens when you develop nausea and vomiting, so metoclopramide can help prevent this. It prevents nausea and vomiting quite effectively in some people. It can occasionally have unpleasant side-effects, particularly in children (in whom it is not recommended). Metoclopramide is often helpful for those who tend to have gastric reflux, those who have slow tummy emptying because of previous surgery, and those who have type 1 diabetes. Your GP will advise whether metoclopramide is suitable for you.


Domperidone , like metoclopramide, is sometimes used for sickness caused by slow tummy emptying. It is not usually recommended for motion sickness but is occasionally used if other treatments don't help. Domperidone is not a legal medicine in some countries, including the USA.


Ondansetron is a powerful antisickness medicine which is most commonly used for sickness caused by chemotherapy, and occasionally used for morning sickness in pregnancy. It is not usually effective for motion sickness. This, and its relatively high cost means that it is not prescribed for motion sickness alone. However, for those undergoing chemotherapy, and for those who have morning sickness aggravated by travel, ondansetron may be helpful.

If you're actually sick you may find that this relieves your symptoms a little, although not always for very long. If you've been sick:

Try a cool flannel on your forehead, try to get fresh air on your face and do your best to find a way to rinse your mouth to get rid of the taste.

Don't drink anything for ten to twenty minutes (or it may come straight back), although (very) tiny sips of very cold water, coke or ginger ale may help.

After this, go back to taking all the prevention measures above.

Once you reach your destination you may continue to feel unwell. Sleep if you can, sip cold iced water, and - when you feel ready - try some small carbohydrate snacks. Avoid watching TV (more moving objects to watch!) until you feel a little better.

The sensation called 'mal de debarquement' (French for sickness on disembarking) refers to the sensation you sometimes get after travel on a boat, train or plane, when you feel for a while as though the ground is rocking beneath your feet. It is probably caused by the overstimulation of the balance organs during your journey. It usually lasts only an hour or two, but in some people it can last for several days, particularly after a long sea journey. It does not usually require any treatment.

Persistent mal de debarquement syndrome is an uncommon condition in which these symptoms may persist for months or years.

Dr Mary Lowth is an author or the original author of this leaflet.

Further reading and references

  • Spinks A, Wasiak J ; Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jun 15;(6):CD002851.
  • Lackner JR ; Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting. Exp Brain Res. 2014 Aug;232(8):2493-510. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4008-8. Epub 2014 Jun 25.
  • Leung AK, Hon KL ; Motion sickness: an overview. Drugs Context. 2019 Dec 13;8:2019-9-4. doi: 10.7573/dic.2019-9-4. eCollection 2019.
  • Zhang LL, Wang JQ, Qi RR, et al ; Motion Sickness: Current Knowledge and Recent Advance. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2016 Jan;22(1):15-24. doi: 10.1111/cns.12468. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
  • Van Ombergen A, Van Rompaey V, Maes LK, et al ; Mal de debarquement syndrome: a systematic review. J Neurol. 2016 May;263(5):843-854. doi: 10.1007/s00415-015-7962-6. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Article history

The information on this page is written and peer reviewed by qualified clinicians.

Next review due: 14 Mar 2028

16 mar 2023 | latest version.

Last updated by

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  • Motion sickness: First aid

Any type of transportation can cause motion sickness. It can strike suddenly, progressing from a feeling of uneasiness to a cold sweat, dizziness and vomiting. It usually quiets down as soon as the motion stops. The more you travel, the more easily you'll adjust to being in motion.

You might avoid motion sickness by planning ahead. When traveling, avoid sitting in the rear of the vehicle or in seats that face backward. Pick seats where you'll feel motion least:

  • By ship, request a cabin in the front or middle of the ship near the water level.
  • By plane, ask for a seat over the front edge of a wing. Once aboard, direct the air vent flow to your face.
  • By train, take a forward-facing seat near the front and next to a window.
  • By automobile, drive or sit in the front passenger's seat. Children should be in age-appropriate seats and restraints.

If you're susceptible to motion sickness:

  • Focus on the horizon or on a distant, stationary object. Don't read or use electronic devices while traveling.
  • Keep your head still, while resting against a seat back.
  • Don't smoke and don't sit near smokers.
  • Avoid strong odors, spicy and greasy foods, and alcohol.
  • Take an antihistamine, which you can buy without a prescription. Medicines include dimenhydrinate (Dramamine, Driminate, others) and meclizine (Dramamine Less Drowsy, Travel-Ease, others). Dimenhydrinate is safe for children older than age 2. Take these medicines at least 30 to 60 minutes before you travel. Expect drowsiness as a side effect.
  • Consider scopolamine, available in a prescription adhesive patch called Transderm Scop. Several hours before you plan to travel, apply the patch behind your ear for 72-hour protection. Talk to your health care provider before using the medicine if you have health problems such as glaucoma or urine retention.
  • Try ginger. A ginger supplement combined with ginger snaps, ginger ale or candied ginger might help curb nausea.
  • Eat lightly. Some people find that nibbling on plain crackers and sipping cold water or a carbonated drink without caffeine help.
  • Ferri FF. Motion sickness. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2023. Elsevier; 2023. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 29, 2022.
  • Bennett JE, et al. Protection of travelers. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 29, 2022.
  • Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 29, 2022.
  • Motion sickness. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/motion-sickness. Accessed Nov. 29, 2022.
  • Kc Leung A, et al. Motion sickness: An overview. Drugs in Context. 2019; doi:10.7573/dic.2019-9-4.
  • Dimenhydrinate oral. Facts & Comparisons eAnswers. https://fco.factsandcomparisons.com. Accessed Nov. 29, 2022.

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Ayuno intermitente, profilaxis previa a la exposición (prep), motion sickness.

Last Updated June 2023 | This article was created by familydoctor.org editorial staff and reviewed by Deepak S. Patel, MD, FAAFP, FACSM

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What is motion sickness?

Motion sickness is a sick feeling triggered by movement. It occurs in cars, buses, trains, planes, or boats. It can occur on amusement rides or virtual reality experiences. Seeing the movement of others or things can trigger it. This condition is not life-threatening, however, it can make traveling unpleasant. Planning ahead helps prevent, avoid, or reduce the effects. Other triggers include:

  • Being in the back seat of a car unable to see the horizon
  • Reading in the car
  • Not getting enough air in the car

Motion sickness is common in older people, pregnant women, and children between the ages of 5 and 12. Also, it’s common in people who have migraine headaches. It may be genetic. Once the motion stops, you’ll gradually feel better. In rare cases, the condition is triggered by a problem with your inner ear. This could be due to fluid buildup or an ear infection. Parkinson’s disease is another cause of the condition.

Symptoms can strike without warning. They can get worse quickly. You may feel sick to your stomach (nausea). Other symptoms include vomiting, pale skin, headache, a cold sweat, dizziness, and irritability.

What causes motion sickness?

Motion sickness is an imbalance between what you see and what you feel. In the car, the car is moving forward. However, your body is standing still. This imbalance is what causes you to feel sick.

You may notice a pattern of sickness when you travel. See your doctor if you experience motion sickness repeatedly. Your doctor will do a physical exam. They will look inside your ears and at your eyes. Your doctor will ask you questions about your health history before recommending treatment.

Prevention Tips

If you know you get motion sickness when traveling, plan ahead. These steps can prevent it or relieve the symptoms:

  • Take motion sickness medicine one to two hours before traveling.
  • Choose the right seat. The front passenger seat is best in the car. Choose the midpoint on a boat. Sit over the wing on a plane. Face forward on a train. Sit near a window on a train. These seats have fewer bumps. They allow you to see the horizon. If you are on a cruise, book a cabin in the front or middle of the ship. Request a room that is closest to the water level.
  • Get plenty of air. Use the air conditioner or roll down the window in a car. Direct the vent toward you on a plane. Sit near a window when you’re on a covered boat.
  • Avoid things you can’t change. For example, don’t ride on a speed boat. Waves and bumps can make you sick. If you can’t avoid it, take medicine in advance.
  • Don’t read while riding in a car, plane, or boat. Look out the window at the horizon. Look at a distant object.
  • Lie down when you feel sick.
  • Avoid a heavy meal before or during travel. Eat small portions of plain food instead. Don’t eat greasy, spicy, or acidic foods before or during travel.
  • Drink lots of water. Avoid alcohol.
  • Talk to your doctor about different therapies. This might include pressure bands (worn on your wrist).

If your symptoms last longer than a few days, see your doctor.

Common medicines that treat motion sickness include Benadryl, Dramamine, and scopolamine. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends scopolamine. It eases nausea and vomiting. It does not make you sleepy. A skin patch works best.

Antihistamines (one brand name: Benadryl) are helpful. However, these usually make you sleepy. Non-drowsy antihistamines are not effective in treating or preventing motion sickness. Another type of medicine is called antiemetics. These are used to treat nausea and vomiting.

Some of these medicines are prescription. Some are available over-the-counter. Talk to your doctor to determine which is best for you. These medicines work best when taken before you travel.

Once nausea begins, eat a few, plain crackers and drink clear, fizzy drinks (ginger ale is best) to relieve nausea.

Living with motion sickness

Planning ahead is the best advice for motion sickness. If your symptoms are mild, medicines are effective. Be sure to carry the proper medications with you while traveling.

Questions to ask your doctor

  • Can medicine help after the symptoms start?
  • Is motion sickness a sign of a more serious health problem?
  • Can I take motion sickness medicine if I am pregnant or breastfeeding?
  • Are motion sickness medicines safe to take with other medicines?

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Motion Sickness

National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Motion Sickness

Last Updated: August 11, 2021

This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff and Alex Rice

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This information provides a general overview and may not apply to everyone. Talk to your family doctor to find out if this information applies to you and to get more information on this subject.

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Motion Sickness: Symptoms, Who's at Risk, and How to Prevent It

  • Who Is at Risk
  • Medications
  • Health Conditions
  • When to Get Help

Motion sickness ( kinetosis ) causes symptoms that include dizziness, nausea , and headache . It occurs when you're moving (in a car, for example) and your brain receives mixed signals from your body, inner ear, and eyes about its surroundings. For instance, if you're below deck on a boat, your inner ear may sense rolling waves but your eyes don't see them. It is also called vertigo or seasickness , and is common in both children and adults, though some risk factors make it more likely.

Motion sickness also can occur due to flight simulators, gaming, amusement park rides, and other "virtual reality" experiences. Self-driving (automated) vehicles also lead to episodes of motion sickness, as people read or work on other tasks rather than driving themselves.

This article explains the symptoms of motion sickness, their causes, and who's at risk. It presents tips on managing your symptoms and ways to prevent motion sickness before it happens.

Illustration by Maritsa Patrinos for Verywell Health

Who Is at Higher Risk for Motion Sickness?

Studies have shown that essentially everyone has the potential to get motion sickness because it's related to the vestibular system (and its ear-related role in motion, balance, and coordination).  It's common, with one study finding up to 25% of large ship passengers (even more on smaller boats) will develop motion sickness within two to three days of the start of an ocean voyage.

For some people, it starts right away, while others only feel sick after they’ve been moving for a long time. Some people are more likely to get motion sickness, including:

  • Children aged 2 to 12 years (it can occur in younger children)
  • Younger adults (compared with those over age 60)
  • People who are pregnant
  • People who get migraine headaches

Other factors that contribute to risk include:

  • Alcohol and drug use
  • Being sleep deprived
  • Poor airflow in a vehicle
  • Certain odors, including diesel fuel or cigarette smoke

A small study has shown that people who don't know when or how motion will occur may have more difficulty. Facing forward and watching the horizon may help deal with unpredictable motion and motion sickness.

Hormones and Motion Sickness

Females are more likely than males to get motion sickness, partly because of hormones.  Estrogen , the primary female sex hormone, can contribute to symptoms of nausea and dizziness. Studies have shown that the menstrual cycle, as well as estrogen drugs or supplements, can affect how someone experiences motion sickness.

Symptoms of Motion Sickness

Symptoms of motion sickness can vary significantly from person to person, and the degree to which you feel ill can be less severe or more severe than other people who suffer from vertigo.

Nausea and vomiting are common, but they are not the only symptoms of motion sickness. Other symptoms may include:

  • Cold sweats and clammy hands
  • Hyperventilation (rapid breathing)
  • Sensitivity to smells
  • Loss of appetite (clinically called anorexia )
  • Excessive salivation
  • Warm, flushed sensation

Sopite Syndrome

Some people have a subcategory of motion sickness called sopite syndrome. The main symptoms of sopite syndrome include:

  • Drowsiness and lethargy
  • Mild depression
  • Reduced ability to focus on an assigned task

Nausea and vomiting are not symptoms of sopite syndrome, which is one way it’s different from more common types of motion sickness. Sopite symptoms also may occur alone, or they may last longer than other motion sickness symptoms. The precise cause remains unclear, but it's possible another mechanism (including ear-related) is at work.

Medications Can Cause Motion Sickness

Motion sickness symptoms (or their increased severity) can be caused by certain medications. Both prescription drugs and over-the-counter (OTC) medications can cause side effects that result in motion sickness symptoms even when you’re not actually moving.

Nausea, dizziness, and feeling off balance are the vertigo-like side effects that can occur with a wide range of medications. Some of the common medications that may cause these symptoms include:

  • Antibiotics such as penicillin, Suprax (cefixime), and Cipro (ciprofloxacin)
  • Estrogen-containing medications such as birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy
  • Bisphosphonates , such as Binosto (alendronate)
  • Lanoxin ( digoxin )
  • Inbrija (levodopa)
  • Narcotic pain medications like Kadian (morphine), OxyContin ( oxycodone ), or Hysingla ER (hydrocodone)
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories like Advil (ibuprofen) and Aleve (naproxen)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Paxil (paroxetine), Prozac (fluoxetine), and Zoloft (sertraline)
  • Statins such as Crestor (rosuvastatin) and Zocor (simvastatin)

Even if you do feel discomfort, do not skip or stop taking your medications without talking to your provider.

If you will be traveling and are worried about motion sickness occurring or being more severe with a medication, talk to your healthcare provider. They may say that you can safely take your dose in a different way (for example, at a different time) to help prevent symptoms. 

Motion Sickness Symptoms and Health Conditions

Motion sickness usually stops within eight hours of ending the activity or movement. If your symptoms do not get better when you stop moving, it could be another condition that causes the same symptoms as motion sickness and you should talk to your provider.

Conditions that can cause similar symptoms to motion sickness include:

  • Fluid in the ear
  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)
  • Meniere’s disease

Talk to your healthcare provider about your symptoms to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

Treatment for Motion Sickness

There are a few treatment options for motion sickness. If you're taking medication before traveling, your healthcare provider may suggest a small dose before your trip to see how well it works.

Common medications for treating motion sickness include:

  • Bonine (meclizine)
  • Dramamine (dimenhydrinate)
  • Phenergan ( promethazine )

Other options include:

  • Anticholinergic drugs , including scopolamine (like the Transderm Scop patch)
  • Benzodiazepines like Valium (diazepam)
  • Dopamine receptor antagonists like Reglan (metoclopramide)

Acupuncture and other complementary medicine options, such as using the P6 pressure point to control nausea , exist for treating motion sickness. Some experts recommend ginger. However, there is limited research support for their benefits, and motion sickness remains easier to prevent than treat.

Preventing Motion Sickness

Changing your activities or position can help with motion sickness, though reading often leads to motion sickness. Lying down can help, as does limiting your visual input (for example, trees that seem to move as you pass them).

You can also try:

  • Sitting in the front seat, if in a vehicle
  • Turning air vents toward your face
  • Keeping your head still
  • Avoiding heavy meals or alcohol use

Natural remedies may help with motion sickness symptoms and their prevention. Try deep breathing exercises, which have been shown to help with seasickness in simulated exercises.

Physical therapy to help you adapt to motion may help, as can transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation ( TENS ) using a small device that generates impulses. Cognitive behavioral therapy also may help to treat anxiety related to motion sickness.

Try Not to Think About Motion Sickness

Research has suggested that people who think they will get motion sickness are more likely to. You might be able to avoid or at least prevent motion sickness from getting worse by changing your thoughts and finding a distraction.

When to See a Healthcare Provider

Most people see a healthcare provider for motion sickness ahead of planned travel, in order to seek preventive treatment, but other situations do arise. The most common complications of motion sickness include vomiting that leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances , which can be treated easily. These conditions can, however, cause serious illness in some people.

Other conditions with symptoms similar to motion sickness include:

  • Low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ), which requires immediate care in people diagnosed with diabetes
  • Stroke , a life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention
  • Traumatic head injury and concussion, commonly caused by sports injuries or accidents

If you feel sick after you hit your head or were in an accident, go to the emergency room or call 911.

Keep in mind that motion sickness usually goes away fairly quickly once you’ve stopped moving. If it’s been more than eight hours and you’re still having symptoms, call your provider.

While nausea and vomiting are common, they are not the only symptoms of motion sickness. Some people have other symptoms like fatigue and mood changes. Medications, hormones, and certain activities can make you more likely to get motion sickness.

It's easier to prevent motion sickness than treat it, so talk to your healthcare provider about medication and other treatment options.

If feelings of illness do not go away after the motion stops, your symptoms could be due to another condition. See your healthcare provider if you have motion sickness symptoms that last longer than eight hours.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Motion Sickness .

Golding JF. Motion sickness . Handb Clin Neurol. 2016;137:371-390. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63437-5.00027-3

Li D, Chen L. Mitigating motion sickness in automated vehicles with vibration cue system . Ergonomics . 2022 Oct;65(10):1313-1325. doi:10.1080/00140139.2022.2028902.

Foster M, Singh N, Kwok K, Macefield VG. Vestibular modulation of skin sympathetic nerve activity in sopite syndrome induced by low-frequency sinusoidal motion. J Neurophysiol . 2020 Dec 1;124(6):1551-1559. doi: 10.1152/jn.00177.2020. 

Leung AK, Hon KL. Motion sickness: an overview . Drugs Context . 2019 Dec 13;8:2019-9-4. doi: 10.7573/dic.2019-9-4. 

Lipson S, Wang A, Corcoran M, Zhou G, Brodsky JR. Severe motion sickness in infants and children . Eur J Paediatr Neurol . 2020 Sep;28:176-179. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.06.010.

Laitinen L, Nurmi M, Ellilä P, Rautava P, Koivisto M, Polo-Kantola P. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: associations with personal history of nausea and affected relatives . Arch Gynecol Obstet . 2020 Oct;302(4):947-955. doi: 10.1007/s00404-020-05683-3. 

Jones MLH, Le VC, Ebert SM, Sienko KH, Reed MP, Sayer JR. Motion sickness in passenger vehicles during test track operations . Ergonomics . 2019 Oct;62(10):1357-1371. doi: 10.1080/00140139.2019.1632938.

Peddareddygari LR, Kramer PD, Hanna PA, Levenstien MA, Grewal RP. Genetic Analysis of a Large Family with Migraine, Vertigo, and Motion Sickness . Can J Neurol Sci . 2019 Sep;46(5):512-517. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2019.64.

Kuiper OX, Bos JE, Schmidt EA, Diels C, Wolter S. Knowing What's Coming: Unpredictable Motion Causes More Motion Sickness . Hum Factors . 2020 Dec;62(8):1339-1348. doi: 10.1177/0018720819876139.

Smith PF, Agrawal Y, Darlington CL. Sexual dimorphism in vestibular function and dysfunction . J Neurophysiol . 2019;121(6):2379-2391. doi:10.1152/jn.00074.2019

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Motion Sickness .

Varis N, Leinonen A, Perälä J, Leino TK, Husa L, Sovelius R. Delayed Drowsiness After Normobaric Hypoxia Training in an F/A-18 Hornet Simulator . Aerosp Med Hum Perform . 2023 Sep 1;94(9):715-718. doi:10.3357/AMHP.6238.2023. 

Altissimi G, Colizza A, Cianfrone G, et al. Drugs inducing hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness and vertigo: an updated guide . Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci . 2020;24(15):7946-7952. doi:10.26355/eurrev_202008_22477

Seattle Children's Hospital. Motion sickness .

Hromatka BS, Tung JY, Kiefer AK, Do CB, Hinds DA, Eriksson N. Genetic variants associated with motion sickness point to roles for inner ear development, neurological processes and glucose homeostasis .  Hum Mol Genet . 2015;24(9):2700-2708. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddv028

Golding JF, Patel M. Meniere's, migraine, and motion sickness . Acta Otolaryngol. 2017;137(5):495-502. doi:10.1080/00016489.2016.1255775

Koch A, Cascorbi I, Westhofen M, Dafotakis M, Klapa S, Kuhtz-Buschbeck JP. The neurophysiology and treatment of motion sickness .  Dtsch Arztebl Int . 2018;115(41):687-696. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2018.0687

Stromberg SE, Russell ME, Carlson CR.  Diaphragmatic breathing and its effectiveness for the management of motion sickness . Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015;86(5):452-7.

Huppert D, Benson J, Brandt T. A historical view of motion sickness - a plague at sea and on land, also with military impact .  Front Neurol . 2017;8:114. doi:10.3389/fneur.2017.00114

Shen Y, Qi X. Update on diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vestibular migraine . Neurol Sci . 2022;43(3):1659-1666. doi:10.1007/s10072-022-05872-9

By Kristin Hayes, RN Kristin Hayes, RN, is a registered nurse specializing in ear, nose, and throat disorders for both adults and children.

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Am Fam Physician. 2014;90(1):41-46

Patient information : See related handout on motion sickness , written by the authors of this article.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.

Motion sickness is a common syndrome that occurs upon exposure to certain types of motion. It is thought to be caused by conflict between the vestibular, visual, and other proprioceptive systems. Although nausea is the hallmark symptom, it is often preceded by stomach awareness, malaise, drowsiness, and irritability. Early self-diagnosis should be emphasized, and patients should be counseled about behavioral and pharmacologic strategies to prevent motion sickness before traveling. Patients should learn to identify situations that will lead to motion sickness and minimize the amount of unpleasant motion they are exposed to by avoiding difficult conditions while traveling or by positioning themselves in the most stable part of the vehicle. Slow, intermittent exposure to the motion can reduce symptoms. Other behavioral strategies include watching the true visual horizon, steering the vehicle, tilting their head into turns, or lying down with their eyes closed. Patients should also attempt to reduce other sources of physical, mental, and emotional discomfort. Scopolamine is a first-line medication for prevention of motion sickness and should be administered transdermally several hours before the anticipated motion exposure. First-generation antihistamines, although sedating, are also effective. Nonsedating antihistamines, ondansetron, and ginger root are not effective in the prevention and treatment of motion sickness.

Motion sickness is a syndrome that occurs when a patient is exposed to certain types of motion and usually resolves soon after its cessation. It is a common response to motion stimuli during travel. Although nausea is a hallmark symptom, the syndrome includes symptoms ranging from vague malaise to completely incapacitating illness. These symptoms, which can affect the patient's recreation, employment, and personal safety, can occur within minutes of experiencing motion and can last for several hours after its cessation.

Nearly all persons will have symptoms in response to severe motion stimuli, and a history of motion sickness best predicts future symptoms. 1 Females, children two to 15 years of age, and persons with conditions associated with nausea (e.g., early pregnancy, migraines, vestibular syndromes) report increased susceptibility.

The pathogenesis of motion sickness is not clearly understood, but it is thought to be related to conflict between the vestibular, visual, and other proprioceptive systems. 2 Rotary, vertical, and low-frequency motions produce more symptoms than linear, horizontal, and high-frequency motions. 1

Clinical Presentation

Although nausea may be the first recognized symptom of motion sickness, it is almost always preceded by other subtle symptoms such as stomach awareness (i.e., a sensation of fullness in the epigastrium), malaise, drowsiness, and irritability. Failure to attribute early symptoms to motion sickness may lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Although mild symptoms are common, severely debilitating symptoms are rare 2 ( Table 1 1 , 2 ) .

Behavioral Interventions

Prevention of motion sickness is more effective than treating symptoms after they have occurred. Therefore, patients should learn to identify situations that may lead to motion sickness and be able to initiate behavioral strategies to prevent or minimize symptoms 1 , 2 ( Table 2 1 – 13 ) .


Patients should be advised to avoid traveling in difficult weather conditions. If they must travel, they should sit in the part of the vehicle with the least amount of rotational and vertical motion. 2 This is usually the lowest level in trains and buses, close to water level and in the center of boats, and over the wing on airplanes.


With continuous exposure to motion, symptoms of motion sickness will usually subside in one to two days. Alternatively, slow, intermittent habituation to motion is an effective strategy to reduce symptoms. 1 For example, spending the first night aboard a boat in the marina, followed by a day acclimating in the harbor, is preferable to going straight into the open ocean.


A small study found that focusing on the true horizon (skyline) minimized symptoms of motion sickness. 5 A survey of 3,256 bus passengers suggested that forward vision was helpful in reducing symptoms. 3 Another study indicated that forward vision in a car can reduce symptoms. 4


Actively steering the vehicle is an accepted strategy for reducing symptoms of motion sickness, although evidence is limited. 7 Additionally, a small study of automobile passengers found that actively tilting the head into turns was effective in preventing symptoms. 6 A survey of 260 cruise ship passengers supported the common advice to recline and passively stabilize themselves if they are unable to initiate active movements. 8


Frequent consumption of light, soft, bland, low-fat, and low-acid food can minimize symptoms of motion sickness. 2 Treating gastritis is useful, 2 as is avoiding nausea-inducing stimuli (e.g., alcohol, noxious odors). Discussing symptoms with others can exacerbate the condition. Passengers should be well rested, well hydrated, well fed, and comfortable before beginning travel. Small studies have shown that cognitive behavior therapy, mindful breathing, and listening to music may also reduce symptoms of motion sickness. 9 , 10 , 13


Medications are most effective when taken prophylactically before traveling, or as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms 2 ( Table 3 1 , 2 , 14 – 23 ) . Medications are most effective when combined with behavioral strategies. To familiarize themselves with common side effects, patients should first take medications in a comfortable environment before using them for motion sickness during travel.


Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is a first-line option for preventing motion sickness in persons who wish to maintain wakefulness during travel. 2 , 20 , 24 A Cochrane review of 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed that scopolamine is effective for the prevention of motion sickness. 14 A more recent RCT of 76 naval crew members showed that transdermal scopolamine is more effective and has fewer side effects than the antihistamine cinnarizine (not available in the United States). 15 If the recommended dose of scopolamine does not adequately relieve symptoms, the dose may be doubled. Adding a second patch of transdermal scopolamine was well tolerated in a small RCT of 20 sailors. 25


First-generation antihistamines have been used to treat motion sickness since the 1940s. 1 They are generally recommended for patients who can tolerate their sedative effects. 2 , 20 Cyclizine (Marezine), dimenhydrinate, promethazine, and meclizine (Antivert) demonstrated effectiveness in small RCTs of varying quality. 16 – 19 Nonsedating antihistamines are not effective in preventing or treating motion sickness. 26


Benzodiazepines are occasionally administered for severe symptoms of motion sickness and have been proven effective in a single small study. 27 The serotonin agonist rizatriptan (Maxalt) reduced motion sickness symptoms in a single RCT of 25 patients with recurrent migraines. 28 The serotonin antagonist ondansetron (Zofran) is ineffective for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness. 29 , 30


Although ginger root is often reported to prevent motion sickness, it had no statistically significant effects in an RCT of 80 naval cadets. 31 A single RCT of pregnant women showed that stimulation of the P6 acupressure point on the anterior wrist increased their tolerance of motion stimuli. 32 Controlled trials of behavioral, pharmacologic, or alternative therapies for motion sickness have demonstrated strong placebo effects. Therefore, treatments are likely to be most effective if the patient believes that they will work. 11 , 12

Data Sources : PubMed was searched using the MeSH headings motion sickness, ships, movement, space motion sickness, and travel. Additional searches were performed in Essential Evidence Plus, UpToDate, Medscape, and BMJ Clinical Evidence. Search dates: March 2012 through March 2014.

Golding JF. Motion sickness susceptibility. Auton Neurosci. 2006;129(1–2):67-76.

Shupak A, Gordon CR. Motion sickness: advances in pathogenesis, prediction, prevention, and treatment. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006;77(12):1213-1223.

Turner M, Griffin MJ. Motion sickness in public road transport: the relative importance of motion, vision and individual differences. Br J Psychol. 1999;90(pt 4):519-530.

Griffin MJ, Newman MM. Visual field effects on motion sickness in cars. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75(9):739-748.

Bos JE, MacKinnon SN, Patterson A. Motion sickness symptoms in a ship motion simulator: effects of inside, outside, and no view. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76(12):1111-1118.

Wada T, Konno H, Fujisawa S, Doi S. Can passengers' active head tilt decrease the severity of carsickness? Effect of head tilt on severity of motion sickness in a lateral acceleration environment. Hum Factors. 2012;54(2):226-234.

Rolnick A, Lubow RE. Why is the driver rarely motion sick? The role of controllability in motion sickness. Ergonomics. 1991;34(7):867-879.

Gahlinger PM. Cabin location and the likelihood of motion sickness in cruise ship passengers. J Travel Med. 2000;7(3):120-124.

Dobie TG, May JG. The effectiveness of a motion sickness counselling programme. Br J Clin Psychol. 1995;34(pt 2):301-311.

Yen Pik Sang FD, Billar JP, Golding JF, Gresty MA. Behavioral methods of alleviating motion sickness: effectiveness of controlled breathing and a music audiotape. J Travel Med. 2003;10(2):108-111.

Horing B, Weimer K, Schrade D, et al. Reduction of motion sickness with an enhanced placebo instruction: an experimental study with healthy participants. Psychosom Med. 2013;75(5):497-504.

Eden D, Zuk Y. Seasickness as a self-fulfilling prophecy: raising self-efficacy to boost performance at sea. J Appl Psychol. 1995;80(5):628-635.

Denise P, Vouriot A, Normand H, Golding JF, Gresty MA. Effect of temporal relationship between respiration and body motion on motion sickness. Auton Neurosci. 2009;151(2):142-146.

Spinks A, Wasiak J. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD002851.

Gil A, Nachum Z, Tal D, Shupak A. A comparison of cinnarizine and transdermal scopolamine for the prevention of seasickness in naval crew: a double-blind, randomized, crossover study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012;35(1):37-39.

Estrada A, LeDuc PA, Curry IP, Phelps SE, Fuller DR. Airsickness prevention in helicopter passengers. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78(4):408-413.

Brand JJ, Colquhoun WP, Gould AH, Perry WL. (—)-Hyoscine and cyclizine as motion sickness remedies. Br J Pharmacol Chemother. 1967;30(3):463-469.

Weinstein SE, Stern RM. Comparison of marezine and dramamine in preventing symptoms of motion sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997;68(10):890-894.

Paul MA, MacLellan M, Gray G. Motion-sickness medications for aircrew: impact on psychomotor performance. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76(6):560-565.

Sherman CR. Motion sickness: review of causes and preventive strategies. J Travel Med. 2002;9(5):251-256.

Zajonc TP, Roland PS. Vertigo and motion sickness. Part II: pharmacologic treatment. Ear Nose Throat J. 2006;85(1):25-35.

Gordon CR, Shupak A. Prevention and treatment of motion sickness in children. CNS Drugs. 1999;12(5):369-381.

McDonald K, Trick L, Boyle J. Sedation and antihistamines: an update. Review of inter-drug differences using proportional impairment ratios. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23(7):555-570.

Nachum Z, Shupak A, Gordon CR. Transdermal scopolamine for prevention of motion sickness: clinical pharmacokinetics and therapeutic applications. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(6):543-566.

Bar R, Gil A, Tal D. Safety of double-dose transdermal scopolamine. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29(9):1082-1088.

Cheung BS, Heskin R, Hofer KD. Failure of cetirizine and fexofenadine to prevent motion sickness. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(2):173-177.

McClure JA, Lycett P, Baskerville JC. Diazepam as an anti-motion sickness drug. J Otolaryngol. 1982;11(4):253-259.

Furman JM, Marcus DA, Balaban CD. Rizatriptan reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness in migraineurs. J Headache Pain. 2011;12(1):81-88.

Muth ER, Elkins AN. High dose ondansetron for reducing motion sickness in highly susceptible subjects. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007;78(7):686-692.

Hershkovitz D, Asna N, Shupak A, Kaminski G, Bar R, Tal D. Ondansetron for the prevention of seasickness in susceptible sailors: an evaluation at sea. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2009;80(7):643-646.

Grøntved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol. 1988;105(1–2):45-49.

Alkaissi A, Ledin T, Odkvist LM, Kalman S. P6 acupressure increases tolerance to nauseogenic motion stimulation in women at high risk for PONV. Can J Anaesth. 2005;52(7):703-709.

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Motion sickness

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  • Motion sickness is also known as travel sickness, car sickness or sea sickness.
  • If you have motion sickness, you are likely to have nausea and may vomit and feel clammy.
  • You can help prevent motion sickness by looking outside of the vehicle or focusing on the horizon.
  • Symptoms usually end once the motion stops.
  • You can try travel sickness treatments to help prevent motion sickness.

What is motion sickness?

Motion sickness is feeling unwell when moving on any type of transport. It is also known as ‘travel sickness’, 'car sickness' or 'sea sickness'. It is a normal response to certain types of movement.

There are a few ways to prevent and manage motion sickness.

What are the symptoms of motion sickness?

Nausea is the main symptom of motion sickness. But you might also experience other symptoms, including:

  • vomiting or retching
  • cold sweating
  • lack of appetite
  • dry mouth or excess saliva
  • increased sensitivity to smell

If you are prone to motion sickness, you may quickly feel sick if you read a book or look at your phone when in a moving vehicle.

You might feel better after vomiting, and symptoms will generally improve once you stop moving. But you can also feel the after-effects of motion sickness for a few hours or a few days before fully recovering.

What causes motion sickness?

Motion sickness is thought to be caused by your senses being confused when what you see is different to the signals felt by your inner ear balance system .

If you are feeling anxious about travel, this can make motion sickness worse.

You can get motion sick when:

  • travelling by car, bus, boat, train or aeroplane
  • on amusement park rides
  • playing virtual reality video games or simulations

Motion sickness is a common problem. It is most frequent in children aged between 2 and 12 years. If other family members get motion sickness, it is more likely that you will too.

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If you already have a condition that causes nausea, such as morning sickness or migraines , you may be more likely to experience motion sickness.

How is motion sickness diagnosed?

You don’t need to see a doctor or get any tests for a diagnosis of motion sickness. There is a pattern of feeling unwell during travel or movement, so you will probably know if you have it.

If you often feel dizzy or nauseous at other times too, discuss this with your doctor.

ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

How is motion sickness treated and prevented?

Practical tips.

Here are some tips for preventing motion sickness:

  • Look out of the window, and focus on the horizon instead of looking at a book or a screen.
  • Try to sit or lie still and rest your head on a pillow or headrest.
  • Sit close to the front of a car, bus or train.
  • If flying, sit still and close your eyes during take-off and landing.
  • Listen to music and breathe mindfully .
  • Open the window or air vent for fresh air.
  • Eat lightly before and during the trip and avoid alcohol. Sip water instead.

Pressure bands worn on your wrists may help prevent motion sickness in some people.

If you are travelling by sea, after a few days of exposure to the motion you will likely adapt and get used to it.

You can try taking travel sickness medicines to prevent motion sickness. These may include:

  • antihistamines
  • antiemetics (medications to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting)

There might be side effects, such as drowsiness. Ask your pharmacist or doctor for advice on what to take. Getting advice is especially important:

  • for children
  • if you are taking other medicines
  • if you are pregnant

If you are using a travel sickness medicine, you should take it about half an hour before travel. If you have motion sickness and you already feel nauseous, it is probably too late to take a medicine. Eating a few plain crackers or having a clear, fizzy drink may help.

If you or your child regularly suffer from motion sickness, make sure you have a container, plastic bags and wipes handy. Take a break for some fresh air when needed.

Resources and support

Ask your doctor or pharmacist how to prevent and treat motion sickness.

Visit the Australian Government Smart Traveller website for more travel health advice.

You can also call the healthdirect helpline on 1800 022 222 (known as NURSE-ON-CALL in Victoria). A registered nurse is available to speak with 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

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Sharing health evidence you can trust

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Treatments to prevent travel sickness: a quick look

In this short blog, Dr Robert Walton looks at the evidence on treatments to prevent travel sickness (motion sickness).

Take-home points

Take-home points: Effective preventative treatments are available for travel sickness The choice is between hyoscine and older ‘first generation’ antihistamines New Cochrane evidence shows that some antihistamines are likely to reduce the risk of travel sickness in adults. They may cause drowsiness

The new evidence on antihistamines comes from the Cochrane Review Antihistamines for motion sickness (published in October 2022) and is relevant to adults.

Travel sickness (motion sickness) is a common problem, and many people experience nausea for example on boats, planes or in the car. Lots of treatments which aim to prevent travel sickness are available to buy in UK pharmacies, including medicines. Here is the evidence on these medicines and some things you may want to think about when making your choices.

Making a choice? Think BRAIN!

It can be helpful to think BRAIN : What are the B enefits, R isks, A lternatives, what do I want and what if I do N othing? These can be good questions to talk about with a health professional when making a health decision.

Medicines to prevent travel sickness

The choice is between hyoscine (or scopolamine as it is sometimes called) and antihistamines such as cinnarizine.

Most of the Cochrane evidence Cochrane Reviews are systematic reviews. In systematic reviews we search for and summarize studies that answer a specific research question (e.g. is paracetamol effective and safe for treating back pain?). The studies are identified, assessed, and summarized by using a systematic and predefined approach. They inform recommendations for healthcare and research. is focused on hyoscine which is probably better than placebo An intervention that appears to be the same as that which is being assessed but does not have the active component. For example, a placebo could be a tablet made of sugar, compared with a tablet containing a medicine. (dummy treatment Something done with the aim of improving health or relieving suffering. For example, medicines, surgery, psychological and physical therapies, diet and exercise changes. ) at preventing travel sickness.  It comes from the Cochrane Review Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sicknes s (published June 2011).

The new Cochrane evidence about antihistamines, from the Cochrane Review Antihistamines for motion sickness (published October 2022) finds that they are likely to reduce the risk A way of expressing the chance of an event taking place, expressed as the number of events divided by the total number of observations or people. It can be stated as ‘the chance of falling were one in four’ (1/4 = 25%). This measure is good no matter the incidence of events i.e. common or infrequent. of travel sickness in adults who tend to get it, compared with taking a placebo.

It’s worth bearing in mind that there is evidence to support using older or ‘first generation’ antihistamines but none for the newer medicines such as loratadine and cetirizine which are more commonly used now for hay fever now.  These newer antihistamines are not used to prevent or treat motion sickness and are unlikely to be effective.

There are few studies comparing the two types of medicines.  There is little information about whether either are useful for treating motion sickness after it has started so prevention may be better than cure.

What are the risks?

Hyoscine and antihistamines both work in the same way for preventing travel sickness and they also share the same side effects which include drowsiness in some people.

What are the other options?

Many other options are available but there is no Cochrane evidence about their potential benefits and harms.

What do I want?

What matters (most) to you, and past experiences of a problem – and of treatments, is important when making treatment choices. If you usually get travel sickness and want to prevent it then there are medicines that can help and are backed up by Cochrane evidence. But it may be important to you to avoid the risk of side effects (such as drowsiness, if you have to drive for example). You could discuss your options and experience of treatments with a pharmacist.

What if I do nothing?

Travel sickness is usually not usually a big problem although some people can be quite severely affected.  If you have had it once in a particular situation then you are likely to get it again.

Find out more

NHS pages on motion sickness

The Cochrane Reviews Cochrane Reviews are systematic reviews. In systematic reviews we search for and summarize studies that answer a specific research question (e.g. is paracetamol effective and safe for treating back pain?). The studies are identified, assessed, and summarized by using a systematic and predefined approach. They inform recommendations for healthcare and research. :

Karrim N, Byrne R, Magula N, Saman Y. Antihistamines for motion sickness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews In systematic reviews we search for and summarize studies that answer a specific research question (e.g. is paracetamol effective and safe for treating back pain?). The studies are identified, assessed, and summarized by using a systematic and predefined approach. They inform recommendations for healthcare and research. 2022, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD012715. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012715.pub2.

Spinks A, Wasiak J. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD002851. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002851.pub4.

Why you can trust this information

Join in the conversation on Twitter with  @CochraneUK   @rtwalton123  or leave a comment on the blog. 

Please note, we cannot give specific medical advice and do not publish comments that link to individual pages requesting donations or to commercial sites, or appear to endorse commercial products. We welcome diverse views and encourage discussion but we ask that comments are respectful and reserve the right to not publish any we consider offensive. Cochrane UK does not fact-check – or endorse – readers’ comments, including any treatments mentioned.

Robert Walton has nothing to disclose.


About Robert Walton

Robert Walton is a Cochrane UK Senior Fellow in General Practice. Robert qualified in medicine in London in 1983, having taken an intercalated degree in human pharmacology and immunology. He trained at St Georges Hospital, London and became a member of the Royal College of Physicians in 1986. His work applying computerised decision support to prescribing drugs in the Department of Public Health and Primary care in Oxford led to a doctoral thesis in 1998. Robert was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of General Practitioners in 1999 and the Royal College of Physicians in 2001. He became a Senior Investigator in the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in 2016. Robert is Clinical Professor of Primary Medical Care at Queen Mary and was joint lead of the NIHR Research Design Service east London team. His research interests are in primary care, genetics, clinical trials and personalised medicine. Robert led a five-year NIHR funded programme developing a novel training intervention to promote smoking cessation in pharmacies in east London which included a substantive Cochrane review and meta analysis on behaviour change interventions in community pharmacies and a large scale cluster-randomised clinical trial. His research team is also developing a smartphone game to promote smoking cessation and researching a personalised/stratified medicine approach to tobacco dependence using computerised decision support. He sat on the NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research sub panel A and worked as an evaluator for the European Union Horizon 2020 programmes Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases and New Therapies for Rare Diseases and as a monitor for EU projects. Robert contributes to UK national guidance, and has served on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Outcome Indicator and Technology Appraisals Committees.

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1 Comments on this post

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Dr. Walton, thank you for sharing your review. For children and those children with epilepsy, I have looked at their sensory processing to help prevent some of their motion sickness. There is a book “Understanding your Child’s Sensory Signals” by Angie Voss, OTR that helps families. I can also share with you my poster from the British Paediatric Neurology Association event in 2020 titled ” What are the perspectives and understanding of healthcare professionals including occupational therapists on treatment and care of babies with infantile spasms and early onset epilepsy- A qualitative design” if I have your email address.

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Evidently Cochrane

Hyoscine hydrobromide (Kwells and Joy-Rides) - Other brand names: Kwells Kids, Travel Calm, Scopoderm

Find out how hyoscine hydrobromide treats travel sickness and how to take it.

  • About hyoscine hydrobromide
  • Who can and cannot take it
  • How and when to take it
  • Side effects
  • Pregnancy, breastfeeding and fertility
  • Taking it with other medicines and herbal supplements
  • Common questions

Related conditions

  • Motion sickness

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Russia Travel Advisory

Travel advisory september 5, 2023, russia - level 4: do not travel.

Updated to remove COVID-specific information and the kidnapping risk indicator as well as updates to security risks.

Do not travel to Russia due to the unpredictable consequences of the  unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine by Russian military forces , the potential for  harassment and the singling out of U.S. citizens for detention by Russian government security officials , the  arbitrary enforcement of local law ,  limited flights into and out of Russia , the  Embassy’s limited ability to assist U.S. citizens in Russia , and the possibility of  terrorism .  U.S. citizens residing or travelling in Russia should depart immediately.  Exercise increased caution due to  the risk of wrongful detentions.

The U.S. government’s ability to provide routine or emergency services to U.S. citizens in Russia is severely limited, particularly in areas far from the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, due to Russian government limitations on travel for embassy personnel and staffing, and the ongoing suspension of operations, including consular services, at U.S. consulates.

There have been numerous reports of drone attacks, explosions, and fires in areas in Western and Southern Russia, particularly near the Russian border with Ukraine, as well as in Moscow and St. Petersburg. In the event of an emergency, U.S. citizens should follow instructions from local authorities and seek shelter immediately.

In September 2022, the Russian government mobilized citizens to the armed forces in support of its invasion of Ukraine. Russia may refuse to acknowledge dual nationals’ U.S. citizenship, deny their access to U.S. consular assistance, subject them to mobilization, prevent their departure from Russia, and/or conscript them. 

U.S. citizens should note that U.S. credit and debit cards no longer work in Russia, and options to electronically transfer funds from the United States are extremely limited due to sanctions imposed on Russian banks. There are reports of cash shortages within Russia.

Commercial flight options are extremely limited and are often unavailable on short notice. If you wish to depart Russia, you should make independent arrangements as soon as possible. The U.S. Embassy has severe limitations on its ability to assist U.S. citizens to depart the country and transportation options may suddenly become even more limited. Click  here  for Information for U.S. Citizens Seeking to Depart Russia.

U.S. Embassy personnel are generally not permitted to travel on Russian air carriers due to safety concerns.  The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) downgraded the air safety rating for Russia from Category 1 to Category 2 on April 21, 2022, due to Russia’s Federal Agency for Air Transport noncompliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) safety standards.  The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued a Notice to Air Missions (NOTAM) prohibiting U.S. aviation operations into, out of, within, or over those areas of the Moscow Flight Information Region (FIR), the Samara FIR (UWWW) and the Rostov-na-Donu (URRV) FIR within 160NM of the boundaries of the Dnipro (UKDV) Flight Information Regions. For more information, U.S. citizens should consult the  Federal Aviation Administration’s Prohibitions, Restrictions, and Notices .

The right of peaceful assembly and freedom of expression are not consistently protected in Russia. U.S. citizens should avoid all political or social protests and not photograph security personnel at these events. Russian authorities have arrested U.S. citizens who have participated in demonstrations and there are numerous reports Russian nationals have been detained for social media activity. 

Country Summary:

U.S. citizens, including former and current U.S. government and military personnel and private citizens engaged in business who are visiting or residing in Russia, have been interrogated without cause and threatened by Russian officials, and may become victims of harassment, mistreatment, and extortion. 

Russian security services may fail to notify the U.S. Embassy of the detention of a U.S. citizen and unreasonably delay U.S. consular assistance. Russian security services are increasing the arbitrary enforcement of local laws to target foreign and international organizations they consider “undesirable.”

Russian security services have arrested U.S. citizens on spurious charges, singled out U.S. citizens in Russia for detention and harassment, denied them fair and transparent treatment, and convicted them in secret trials or without presenting credible evidence. Furthermore, Russian authorities arbitrarily enforce local laws against U.S. citizen religious workers and have opened questionable criminal investigations against U.S. citizens engaged in religious activity. U.S. citizens should avoid travel to Russia to perform work for or volunteer with non-governmental organizations or religious organizations.

There have been multiple security incidents in southwestern Russia related to Russia’s unprovoked and unjustified invasion of Ukraine. The Russian government declared martial law in Russia’s regions bordering Ukraine (Bryansk, Kursk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Rostov, Krasnodar) on October 20, 2022. The martial law regime allows the rapid introduction of restrictive measures such as curfew, seizure of private property, restriction of entry/exit and freedom of movement, internment of foreigners, forced relocation of local residents, and restrictions on public gatherings. U.S. citizens should avoid all travel to these areas.

Recent legislation has expanded the ability of Russian authorities to detain, question, and arrest individuals suspected of acting against Russia’s interests, including posts on personal social media accounts, engaging with foreign and international entities, discrediting the Russian state or military, as well as advocating for the rights of LGBTQI+ persons.

Terrorist groups, both transnational and local terrorist organizations, and individuals inspired by extremist ideology continue plotting possible attacks in Russia. Terrorists may attack with little or no warning, targeting tourist locations, transportation hubs and systems, markets/shopping malls, local government facilities, hotels, clubs, restaurants, places of worship, parks, major sporting and cultural events, educational institutions, airports, and other public areas. Travel to the North Caucasus (including Chechnya and Mt. Elbrus) is prohibited for U.S. government employees and strongly discouraged for U.S. citizens.

The international community, including the United States and Ukraine, does not recognize Russia’s purported annexation of Crimea as well as four other Ukrainian oblasts – Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhya – that Russia has purported to annex more recently. There is extensive Russian Federation military presence in these areas. Russia staged its further invasion of Ukraine, in part, from occupied Crimea, and Russia is likely to take further military actions in Crimea, and the four other Ukrainian oblasts are the subject of intensive fighting. There are continuing abuses against foreigners and the local population by the occupation authorities in these regions, particularly against those who are seen as challenging Russia’s authority.

The U.S. Embassy in Kyiv continues to provide consular services to U.S. citizens in Crimea as well as four other Ukrainian oblasts partially occupied by Russia – Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson, and Zaporizhzhya, although the ongoing conflict severely restricts the Embassy’s ability to provide services in these areas.

Read the  country information page  for additional information on travel to Russia.

If you decide to travel to Russia:

  • Familiarize yourself with the information on  what the U.S. government can and cannot do to assist you in a crisis overseas .
  • Have a contingency plan in place that does not rely on U.S. government assistance. Review the  Traveler’s Checklist .
  • Monitor local and international media for breaking events and adjust your contingency plans based on the new information.
  • Ensure travel documents are valid and easily accessible.
  • Visit our website for  Travel to High-Risk Areas .
  • Enroll in the  Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP)  to receive Alerts and make it easier to locate you in an emergency.
  • Follow the Department of State on  Facebook  and  Twitter .
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  • Section 5 - Plague
  • Section 5 - Q Fever

Pneumococcal Disease

Cdc yellow book 2024.

Author(s): Jennifer Loo Farrar

Infectious Agent

Transmission, epidemiology, clinical presentation.

INFECTIOUS AGENT: Streptococcus pneumoniae



Pneumococcal disease is vaccine-preventable


A gram-positive diplococcus Streptococcus pneumoniae , also called pneumococcus, causes pneumococcal disease.

S. pneumoniae is transmitted person-to-person through close contact via respiratory droplets.

S. pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide. Disease incidence is higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Pneumococcal meningitis outbreaks have occurred recently in countries in the meningitis belt of Africa (see Sec. 5, Part 1, Ch. 13, Meningococcal Disease ). Infections from pneumococcus also have been reported in travelers attending mass gatherings (e.g., the Hajj pilgrimage, Olympic Games) due to crowded conditions and limited space. Risk for infection is greatest in very young children, older adults, and people with chronic illnesses or immune suppression.

The major clinical syndromes of pneumococcal disease are pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Pneumococcal pneumonia classically presents with sudden onset of fever and malaise, pleuritic chest pain, cough with purulent or blood-tinged sputum, or dyspnea. In older people, fever, shortness of breath, or altered mental status are possible initial symptoms.

Symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis include headache, lethargy, vomiting, irritability, fever, neck stiffness, and seizures. People with cochlear implants are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. S. pneumoniae infection causes meningitis less frequently than it causes pneumonia.

S. pneumoniae infection is diagnosed by isolation of the organism from blood or other normally sterile body sites (e.g., pleural fluid, cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]). Tests are also available to detect pneumococcal antigen in body fluids (e.g., urine). The urinary antigen test is commercially available, simple to use, and has reasonable specificity to detect pneumococcal infection in adults, making it a useful addition for diagnostic evaluation.

Suspect pneumococcal pneumonia when a sputum specimen contains gram-positive diplococci, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and few epithelial cells. Gram-positive diplococci on staining of CSF might indicate pneumococcal meningitis. High white blood cell counts should raise suspicion for bacterial infection.

Therapy depends on the syndrome, and clinicians should treat patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia empirically for pneumococcal infection. In 30% of severe cases, pneumococcal bacteria are resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial drug, although the level and type of resistance varies geographically. Studies show that pneumococcal macrolide resistance is widely variable, between 20%–90%. Pneumococcal resistance to fluoroquinolones is relatively low in the United States and Europe. Global prevalence of drug-resistant S. pneumoniae causing community-acquired pneumonia is currently unknown.

In outpatient settings, current clinical practice guidelines for pneumonia management recommend amoxicillin for children, and macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) or doxycycline for previously healthy adults. For adults with chronic or immunosuppressing conditions, a respiratory fluoroquinolone (e.g., moxifloxacin, levofloxacin) or a β-lactam plus a macrolide are recommended.

In inpatient settings, the initial treatment includes a broad-spectrum cephalosporin plus a macrolide or a respiratory fluoroquinolone alone. For some pneumococcal infections, consider adding vancomycin until antimicrobial susceptibility results are available. Use a broad-spectrum cephalosporin plus vancomycin to treat patients with presumptive pneumococcal meningitis by CSF staining until susceptibility results are available.

The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) provides protection against the 13 serotypes responsible for most severe illness. PCV13 has been part of the US infant immunization schedule since 2010, and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends PCV13 for some adults aged ≥65 years and adults aged 19–64 with immunocompromising conditions.

ACIP recommends 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for all adults aged ≥65 years and people aged 2–64 years with underlying medical conditions. PCV13 and PPSV23 should not be coadministered. Intervals between administering PCV13 and PPSV23 differ by age and risk group.

A 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV20) was licensed for use in adults in June 2021, and the 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15) was licensed for use in adults in July 2021. On October 20, 2021, the ACIP approved recommendations to use PCV20 alone, or PCV15 in series with PPSV23, for all adults aged ≥65 years and for adults aged 19–64 years with underlying medical conditions who have not previously received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or whose vaccination history is unknown. Official guidance on use of these vaccines is being developed.

CDC website: Pneumococcal disease

The following authors contributed to the previous version of this chapter: Lucy McNamara, Amy Blain


Aliberti S, Cook GS, Babu BL, Reyes LF, Rodriguez AH, Sanz F, et al. International prevalence and risk factors evaluation for drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. J Infect. 2019;79(4):300–11.

Bradley JS, Byington CL, Shah SS, Alverson B, Carter ER, Harrison C, et al. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(7):e25–76.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal vaccine recommendations 2020. Available from: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/pneumo/hcp/recommendations.html .

Cilloniz C, Garcia-Vidal C, Ceccato A, Torres A. Antimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae. In: Fong I, Shlaes D, Drlica K editors. Antimicrobial resistance in the 21st century. Emerging infectious diseases of the 21st century. Geneva: Springer Nature; 2018. pp. 13–38.

Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, Anzueto A, Brozek J, Crothers K, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Amer J Resp and Crit Care Med. 2019;200(7):e45–67.

Wahl B, O’Brien KL, Greenbaum A, Majumder A, Liu L, Chu Y, et al. Burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in children in the era of conjugate vaccines: global, regional, and national estimates for 2000–15. Lancet Global Health. 2018;6:e744–57.

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travel sickness adults

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Rusmania • Deep into Russia

travel sickness adults

Day trip to Suzdal from Moscow: transport, sights, maps and tips

travel sickness adults


  Suzdal is one of the most popular destinations on the Golden Ring and the whole city is often described as an open-air museum.  The city has no railway station and practically no heavy industry, meaning that is has preserved its provincial charm and a great deal of architectural monuments.

travel sickness adults

  From Moscow, Suzdal is not as easy to get to as Sergiev Posad (the closest Golden Ring city to the capital) but it is worth going the extra distance as Suzdal provides more of a contrast from Moscow.  If you make use of high-speed trains it is possible and not too demanding to visit for even just a day, but of course spending the night there is recommended to soak in the atmosphere or to combine it with a visit to neighbouring Vladimir.  As the city is a very popular tourist destination you will have no problem finding a cafe or guesthouse there.  There is practically no public transport in the city, but the city is small and most sights are located relatively close to each other.

Getting There and Back

travel sickness adults

Via Vladimir

travel sickness adults

Direct to Suzdal

  Buses directly to Suzdal leave from Moscow’s Schyolkovsky Bus Station.  There are about 9 buses a day and it takes around 4½ hours depending on traffic.  The buses stop at Vladimir too.  Using this option will mean a rather exhausting day trip.

Orientation and Main Sights

travel sickness adults

  Suzdal is a relatively small city and it is not difficult to walk around the city to see most of the sights.  


  The main road in the city is Ulitsa Lenina which runs north across the whole city.  


  The main sights of Suzdal are located either on or just off this road, including the two main sights: the Suzdal Kremlin in the south and the Spaso-Yevfimiev Monastery in the north.


  More information about Suzdal can be found on our Suzdal  pages.

travel sickness adults

  Suzdal is famous for its medovukha (mead) which is an alcoholic drink made out of honey.  It can be drunk either hot or cold, meaning it perfect in both summer and winter, and you will find it on practically every menu in the city.  There are various flavours of the drink available and even a non-alcoholic version.  In addition to medovukha, you can find all traditional Russian souvenirs in the city and there is a big souvenir market on Torgovaya Ploschad.

travel sickness adults

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Trans-Siberian Railway Prices

  • Trans-Siberian Railway Tickets
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View from the Trans-Siberian Railway

Home » Prices and Trans-Siberian Tickets » Trans-Siberian Railway Prices

Ticket prices for the Trans-Siberian Railway also depend on the current ruble exchange rate.

Is the Trans-Siberian Railway expensive?

Before starting on your Trans-Siberian Railway adventure you naturally want to know what the entire trip will cost. Although this sounds like a simple question, it is pretty difficult to answer. The Trans-Siberian Railway price of travel depends on the following factors:

  • Which travel class do I want to use? The price for a first class ticket is about three times the price of a 3rd class ticket
  • Am I willing to buy the tickets myself and assume responsibility for the organisation of the trip?
  • How many stopovers do I want to make? The more breaks, the higher the total price.
  • What sort of accommodation do I want? Will it be a luxury hotel or will a hostel dormitory be sufficient?
  • What tours and excursions would I like to go on?
  • What is the current exchange rate for rubles?

Basically, everything from a luxury to a budget holiday is available. If you buy yourself a 3rd Class nonstop ticket at the counter, a few hundred Euros will cover the price. All you will experience is a week on the Trans-Siberian train and will see nothing of the cities on the way. There is, however, any amount of room for upward expansion. Everyone makes different choices about which aspects they are willing to spend money on. I personally prefer to save money on accommodation and railcar class, visit as many cities and do as many trips as possible. To enable better classification of your travel expenses I have contrasted two typical traveler types. In the third column you can calculate the total cost of your own journey on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Please keep in mind that these are only rough estimations and not exact prices.

The all-in costs seem fairly high at first. However, they cover everything and it is quite a long journey taking four weeks. Many people forget to consider that when looking at the list. We should also deduct the running costs for food and leisure at home. I think most visitors to this page will classify themselves somewhere between the two categories, that is around the € 2,000 – € 2,500 range. When comparing these prices with other travel packages, you get the impression that it is hardly worthwhile travelling individually on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Please keep in mind that most packages last no more than 14 days and you are herded like cattle through the most beautiful locations.

If you spend less time on the Trans-Siberian Railway you will, of course, pay less. I chose this particular travel length because I prefer not to do things by halves. If you fulfill your dream of travelling on the Trans-Siberian Railway, enjoy it and don’t rush things. But it’s up to you, of course. Try playing around with the form a bit to find the appropriate price for your trip.

  • Trans-Siberian Railway Tickets »


  1. What is travel sickness and how to stop it

    travel sickness adults

  2. Infographic: 21 Ways to Beat Travel Sickness

    travel sickness adults

  3. Kwells

    travel sickness adults

  4. Top 10 Tips To Stop Travel Sickness

    travel sickness adults

  5. Travel Sickness

    travel sickness adults

  6. What Causes Travel Sickness and What Can You Do to Combat It?

    travel sickness adults


  1. Motion Sickness: What It Is, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

    The condition is more likely to affect children ages 2 to 12 than adults. Other risk factors are: Having a family history of motion sickness. Inner ear disorders like benign paroxysmal positional vertigo . ... Motion sickness can make travel a miserable experience and take the fun out of playing a video game or an immersive virtual reality game ...

  2. Motion Sickness

    Motion Sickness. Motion sickness happens when the movement you see is different from what your inner ear senses. This can cause dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. You can get motion sick in a car, or on a train, airplane, boat, or amusement park ride. Motion sickness can make traveling unpleasant, but there are strategies to prevent and treat it.

  3. Motion Sickness: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention

    Motion sickness can strike quickly and make you break out in a cold sweat and feel like you need to throw up. Other common symptoms include: Dizziness. Increase in saliva production. Loss of ...

  4. Motion sickness (travel sickness): Causes, remedies, and symptoms

    Scopolamine - the most commonly prescribed medication for motion sickness. It must be taken before symptoms start. It is available as a patch that is placed behind the ear 6-8 hours before ...

  5. Motion Sickness: Prevention and Treatment

    Motion sickness can also be triggered by anxiety or strong smells, such as food or petrol. Sometimes trying to read a book or a map can trigger motion sickness. Both in children and adults, playing computer games can sometimes cause motion sickness to occur. Motion sickness is more common in children and also in women.

  6. Motion sickness: First aid

    First aid. Motion sickness: First aid. By Mayo Clinic Staff. Any type of transportation can cause motion sickness. It can strike suddenly, progressing from a feeling of uneasiness to a cold sweat, dizziness and vomiting. It usually quiets down as soon as the motion stops. The more you travel, the more easily you'll adjust to being in motion.

  7. Motion sickness

    Motion sickness is feeling dizzy, or feeling or being sick when travelling by car, boat, plane or train. ... spicy foods or drink alcohol shortly before or during travel. do not go on fairground rides if they make you feel unwell ... patches - can be used by adults and children over 10; acupressure bands - these do not work for everyone; A ...

  8. Motion Sickness

    CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travel by Air, Land & Sea. Author (s): Ashley Brown. Motion sickness describes the physiologic responses to travel by air, car, sea, train, and virtual reality immersion. Given sufficient stimulus, all people with functional vestibular systems can develop motion sickness. People vary in their susceptibility, however.

  9. Motion sickness Information

    Causes. Motion sickness happens when the body, the inner ear, and the eyes send conflicting signals to the brain. This most often happens when you are in a car, boat, or airplane, but it may also happen on flight simulators or amusement park rides. From inside a ship's cabin, your inner ear may sense rolling motions that your eyes cannot see.

  10. Motion Sickness

    Motion sickness is a sick feeling triggered by movement. It occurs in cars, buses, trains, planes, or boats. It can occur on amusement rides or virtual reality experiences. Seeing the movement of others or things can trigger it. This condition is not life-threatening, however, it can make traveling unpleasant.

  11. Motion Sickness: Surprising Causes and Symptoms

    Motion sickness ( kinetosis ) causes symptoms that include dizziness, nausea, and headache. It occurs when you're moving (in a car, for example) and your brain receives mixed signals from your body, inner ear, and eyes about its surroundings. For instance, if you're below deck on a boat, your inner ear may sense rolling waves but your eyes don ...

  12. Prevention and Treatment of Motion Sickness

    To prevent and reduce symptoms of motion sickness, passengers should look forward at a fixed point on the horizon and avoid close visual tasks. C. 2 - 5. To prevent and reduce symptoms of motion ...

  13. Motion sickness

    Key facts. Motion sickness is also known as travel sickness, car sickness or sea sickness. If you have motion sickness, you are likely to have nausea and may vomit and feel clammy. You can help prevent motion sickness by looking outside of the vehicle or focusing on the horizon. Symptoms usually end once the motion stops.

  14. Treatments to prevent travel sickness: a quick look

    In this short blog, Dr Robert Walton looks at the evidence on treatments to prevent travel sickness (motion sickness). Take-home points. The new evidence on antihistamines comes from the Cochrane Review Antihistamines for motion sickness (published in October 2022) and is relevant to adults.. Travel sickness (motion sickness) is a common problem, and many people experience nausea for example ...

  15. How To Stop Travel Sickness

    There are ways that you can help to ease travel sickness while you're experiencing it or if you think you may feel unwell on a journey. It is said that root ginger, ginger tea and peppermint tea can be effective in settling the stomach when you feel sick. It's also advisable to avoid: Heavy, spicy or rich meals.

  16. Travel Sickness

    travel sickness. Combat those niggling tummy cartwheels on long journeys with our range of travel sickness tablets. Anti-sickness tablets help to nip those uneasy feelings in the bud so you can relax and enjoy the ride. We have travel sickness bands and Sea-Bands for all ages, as well as dissolvable tablets for little ones.

  17. Hyoscine hydrobromide: medicine for travel sickness

    Hyoscine hydrobromide (Kwells and Joy-Rides) Other brand names: Kwells Kids, Travel Calm, Scopoderm. Hyoscine hydrobromide (Kwells and Joy-Rides) Find out how hyoscine hydrobromide treats travel sickness and how to take it. NHS medicines information on hyoscine hydrobromide - what it's used for, side effects, dosage and who can take it.

  18. Travel Sickness Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions ...

    Find patient medical information for Travel Sickness oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. ... Older adults may be more ...

  19. We Tried Amazon's Motion Sickness Glasses

    Our favorite motion sickness glasses are available on Amazon for $24. Store a pair in your glove box or bag—you'll be happy to have them on hand when motion sickness creeps in.

  20. Russia

    All international travelers should be fully vaccinated against measles with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, including an early dose for infants 6-11 months, according to CDC's measles vaccination recommendations for international travel. Dogs infected with rabies are sometimes found in Russia.

  21. Macular degeneration stages, symptoms, and when to get an eye exam

    Macular degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss in the U.S. for adults over 60, according to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation. About 1 in 10 Americans over age 50 are affected by this condition. If you notice changes in your vision or vision loss, you should get an eye exam.

  22. Russia Travel Advisory

    Travel Advisory. September 5, 2023. Russia - Level 4: Do Not Travel. O D U T. Updated to remove COVID-specific information and the kidnapping risk indicator as well as updates to security risks. Do not travel to Russia due to the unpredictable consequences of the unprovoked full-scale invasion of Ukraine by Russian military forces, the ...

  23. Pneumococcal Disease

    Infectious Agent. A gram-positive diplococcus Streptococcus pneumoniae, also called pneumococcus, causes pneumococcal disease.. Transmission. S. pneumoniae is transmitted person-to-person through close contact via respiratory droplets.. Epidemiology. S. pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide.

  24. CDC issues warning after Salmonella outbreak from bearded dragons

    Reptile-lovers beware, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a warning Friday of a Salmonella outbreak from pet bearded dragons. Across the country, 15 people have gotten sick with ...

  25. Day trip to Suzdal from Moscow: transport, sights, maps and tips

    Going to Suzdal via Vladimir is the best option as you will avoid traffic jams and can even travel in comfort is you choose to go via a high-speed train. Suzdal's bus station is located on the outskirts of the city, 1.5km from the centre. The closest airport to Suzdal is that of Ivanovo, which is 79km from the city and also a Golden Ring city ...

  26. Trans-Siberian Railway Prices Calculation

    When comparing these prices with other travel packages, you get the impression that it is hardly worthwhile travelling individually on the Trans-Siberian Railway. Please keep in mind that most packages last no more than 14 days and you are herded like cattle through the most beautiful locations.