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  • Published: 13 February 2024

Exploring the appeal of villainous characters in film-induced tourism: perceived charismatic leadership and justice sensitivity

  • Rui Yao 1 &
  • Jian Yang   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0959-8769 1  

Humanities and Social Sciences Communications volume  11 , Article number:  267 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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  • Business and management
  • Cultural and media studies

Film-induced tourism is considered a valuable marketing tool, especially crucial for the recovery of post-pandemic tourism. The rapid growth of digital streaming platforms has enabled film and television works to reach global audiences and impact viewers on a broader scale. Scholars and tourism operators increasingly recognise film characters’ pivotal role in global film-induced tourism. While film-induced tourism is generally believed to impact the image of tourist destinations positively, existing research has predominantly focused on the decent characters portrayed in films. However, the allure of captivating audiences is not confined solely to decent characters. According to narrative studies in film and television, villainous characters with extraordinary skills often have a stronger appeal to viewers than decent ones. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore a rarely discussed topic: how villainous characters enhance the attractiveness of tourist destinations. This interdisciplinary research principally integrates character arc theory and reception aesthetics from film studies, emotion contagion theory from marketing research, and place attachment theory from tourism studies. Accordingly, this study examines the perceived charismatic leadership of villainous characters and its impact on film tourists’ emotion contagion, place attachment and visit intention. The study distributed questionnaires to 532 audiences who watched the Chinese police and crime drama titled, The Knockdown (狂飙), and who acquainted themselves with the villainous character Gao Qiqiang (高启强). Structured equation modelling showed that villainous characters with charismatic leadership can significantly impact the intention of film tourists. Specifically, perceived charismatic leadership directly influenced emotions of pleasure, arousal and admiration. Place attachment existed as a whole or partial mediator of the three emotions and visit intention. Moreover, the audience’s justice sensitivity negatively moderated the positive relationship between perceived charismatic leadership and emotions. Finally, the study provides insights and suggestions for film tourism marketers and screenwriters.

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Introduction.

For post-epidemic tourism recovery, tourism marketing has long recognised the value of film tourism as the latter is essentially a potential niche market that has been perceived to be more resilient than any other types of tourism during a crisis (Avraham 2021 ; Sousa et al. 2021 ). Due to the rapid development of digital streaming platforms, temporal and spatial constraints of traditional screened media comsumption are shattered, globalising the influence of film and TV content (Martínez-Sánchez et al. 2021 ). Consequently, film stories and characters have become vital in global tourism marketing. Rather than merely increasing destination exposure, films can engage the viewer in a deeper emotional connection with the location by empathising with the storyline and characters (Oshriyeh and Capriello 2022 ). Film characters can be utilised as tourist attractions, destination mascots and celebrity endorsements (Teng and Chen, 2020 ; Xu et al. 2022 ; Florido-Benítez 2023 ; Zhou et al. 2023 ). This series of studies on mascots and celebrity-related theories focuses primarily on decent characters, such as super cute cartoons, doctors, soldiers, superheroes and saviours (Kim 2011 ; Yen and Croy 2013 ; Kim and Kim 2017 ; Xu et al. 2022 ; Florido-Benítez 2023 ). The success rate of decent characters in promoting film tourism is expected to be higher, whereas villain characters are viewed with scepticism (Pratt 2015 ). Although many tourist destinations have interestingly become popular because of villainous characters, such as gangsters in the film Monga (2009), Count Orlok in the film Nosferatu (1922) in real-life scenarios (Chen and Mele 2017 ; Liu et al. 2020 ), discussion scarcely focuses on how villainous characters enhance the appeal of tourism destinations, which is the main objective of this study.

Emotional contagion is a unique experience for the audience of audiovisual narratives and a critical conversion process from being stimulated by film characters to generating an intention to travel to a destination (Coplan 2011 ; Podoshen 2013 ; Wu and Lai 2021 ). Psychology, film and media studies constitute vital sources of research pertaining to emotional contagion, often intertwined with marketing and consumer research to create a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon (Podoshen, 2013 ). Considering destination marketers’ limited control over film location portrayals, tourism operators must grasp how different film genres affect tourists’ emotional responses (Tasci 2009 ; Florido-Benítez 2023 ). Hence, exploring the specific factors that prompt emotional contagion among the audience towards villainous characters is essential.

Character arc theory proposed by McKee ( 1997 ) suggested that charismatic antagonists possess a high level of intelligence, charm and emotional depth, bringing them up to par with the protagonists (Lyons 2021 ). The perceived charismatic leadership of celebrities can produce emotional contagion, but whether film villains can create the same emotional contagion has not been empirically verified (Cherulnik et al. 2001 ; Lee and Theokary 2021 ). Aesthetic reception theory also emphasises that personal experience will affect their aesthetic judgement and interpretation of film images (Jauss and Benzinger 1970 ); whether justice sensitivity will influence the emotion towards evil characters remains unknown. Moreover, although recent tourism research has identified the development of place attachment and behavioural intentions as a result of emotional contagion and has cautioned that different emotions have distinct effects on place attachment and behavioural intentions (Ratcliffe and Korpela 2017 ; Xu and Tan 2019 ), current researches have not directly measured the different emotions that viewers feel towards a character and compare the effects of different emotions on psychological and behavioural responses.

Addressing the identified research gaps and based on emotional contagion theory and the stimuli-organism-response (SOR) model, this study has the following primary purposes: (a) to determine how perceived charismatic leadership of a villainous character, as a stimulus to the audience, influences emotions; (b) to examine whether justice sensitivity moderates the positive emotions generated by perceived charismatic leadership towards a villainous character; (c) compare the differences in the impact of different emotions generated by the perception of charismatic leadership on place attachment (as a psychological response) and visit intention (as a behavioural response); (d) to provide valuable recommendations for film tourism stakeholders, including filmmakers, destination operators and tourism marketers.

Literature review

Film-induced tourism and digital streaming platforms.

Film-induced tourism refers to visiting a destination or attraction prompted after viewing films which cover movies, TV dramas and other forms of screened media (Connell 2012 ; Yen and Croy 2013 ). The appeal of film-induced tourism primarily lies in its ability to enhance the image and value of destinations. Films serve as the cornerstone of film tourism marketing, conveying tourist destinations’ emotional elements and values (Florido-Benítez 2022 ). Films establish themselves as icons of tourist destinations, affirming the feasibility and practicality of film tourism (Nakayama, 2022 ). Nevertheless, film-induced tourism faces particular challenges in becoming the perfect marketing tool for the tourism industry. Research based on the push-pull theory suggested that film-induced tourism often occurred as a serendipitous event, with the impact of film-induced motivation factors being relatively low compared to other factors (Chemli et al. 2022 ). Furthermore, studies indicate that serendipitous tourists make up the majority of film tourism, possibly due to the limited penetration of films and TV dramas in some regions, as their distribution remains restricted (Ng and Chan 2019 ).

With the rapid development of digital streaming platforms, the constraints on disseminating films and TV dramas have gradually been overcome. Mainly influenced by the pandemic, which compelled audiences to spend more time at home, consuming music, films, TV shows, and various forms of entertainment through digital means, this has propelled the flourishing of streaming and online services (Jelinčić 2022 ). As the consumption patterns of television shift, digital streaming platforms have seen an increasing penetration among audiences. These platforms have incorporated social media into their strategies for attracting new users to enhance their competitiveness (Martínez-Sánchez et al. 2021 ). This strategy has not only strengthened the impact of films and TV dramas on social media but has also led film tourism-related research to focus more on film characters and story elements that are easily disseminated through social media. Xu et al. ( 2022 ) suggested that selecting film characters with local cultural significance as mascots for tourist destinations can contribute to reviving the tourism industry in the post-pandemic era. Tourists sharing photos related to film tourism on social media are often linked to narrative plots and interactions with film characters (Gómez-Morales et al. 2022 ). Puche-Ruiz ( 2022 ) emphasised that humorous and extravagant narrative techniques, along with highlighting the mythical, unpredictable, and irrational features of destinations through characters, play a crucial role in shaping tourists’ perception of the formal aspects of the destination’s culture. Augmented Reality (AR) features in film character-related tourism apps can be integrated into destination marketing strategies since fans can share AR images of their favourite stars on social media, establishing connections with potential film tourists (Wu and Lai 2021 ). Therefore, a deeper understanding of how screened media’s plots and character traits influence film tourists becomes increasingly essential in the current digital streaming platform development landscape.

Perceived charismatic leadership

Charismatic leadership is a concept initially defined within the discipline of organisational behaviour. The current research explored the notion of charismatic leadership from two distinct angles. An important characteristic of charismatic leadership is followers’ perception that their leader has extraordinary qualities, highlighting their emotional attachment to the leader (Weber 1947 ; Shamir et al. 1993 ). Conger ( 1989 ) believed that charismatic leadership is characterised by self-confidence, strong vision and the ability to articulate a compelling message, highlighting the exceptional qualities and abilities that can inspire and motivate followers. Specifically, these extraordinary capacities include strategic vision and articulation, the ability to take personal risk, sensitivity to the environment, sensitivity to member needs and unconventional behaviour (Conger and Kanungo 1994 ). In this study, perceived charismatic leadership refers to the audience’s perception coming from the extraordinary leadership ability of a character in a fictional story.

Interestingly, current research on film and TV drama narratives has highlighted that charismatic leadership theory has become an essential theory of character creation in films both for fictional heroes and villainous characters (Warner and Riggio 2012 ). Rosser ( 2016 ) revealed Harry Potter’s charismatic style as reflected in the main character, which demonstrates the effective management of leadership abilities that guide others through the application of virtuous values; particularly in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2000), several film scenes reveal the role of leadership theory in film narratives and serve as the epitome of leadership theory. Leaders must have a good sense of narrative and storytelling to develop their charismatic image (Sharma and Grant 2011 ). Gordon Gekko claimed that ‘greed is good’, reflecting that he is an iconic example of charismatic leadership in the movie Wall Street (1987); he represents both a morally flawed character and a classic portrayal of ambition gone awry (Gini and Green 2013 ). The reason villains in films are often also charismatic leaders is inextricably linked to the use of character arcs in film narratives. Character arcs are characters’ transformations or inner journeys throughout a story and are the secret to creating charismatic avatars (McKee 1997 ). McKee ( 1997 ) served Shakespeare’s Macbeth as an example and suggested that in screenwriting, a well-rounded and multidimensional charismatic antagonist must have a high level of intelligence, charm and emotional depth, making them on par with the protagonist. The Godfather trilogy (1972–1990) is Coppola’s most lasting contribution to cinematic exploration of charismatic leadership, and it shows gangsters in a more noble light than most films do; leadership stereotypes were brilliantly challenged by Corleone (Warner and Riggio 2012 ). The main character, Joker, in his display of power underscores the unethical charismatic leadership affecting followers in the movie Batman: The Dark Knight (2008) and the bureaucratic authority granting leaders legitimate power (Edwards et al. 2015 ). The characters of Walter White from Breaking Bad (2008–2013) and Jimmy McGill from Better Call Saul (2015–2022) have shattered the conventional line between hero and villain, yielding to a new era of compromised protagonists and charismatic anti-heroes (Lyons 2021 ). Fictional characters’ charismatic leadership has profoundly contributed to the dramatic appeal.

Through these dramas and films as an attractive medium, many studies have also found that individuals’ perceptions of charismatic leadership from fictional characters can affect personal behaviour in reality. A character’s charismatic leadership could be the impact of media portrayals on viewers’ expectations, the reinforcement of social and cultural norms and the potential for leadership lessons to be derived from fictional narratives (Long 2017 ; Kuri and Kaufman 2020 ). The public’s fascination with the images and behaviours of highly appealing film characters can be extended to the physical environments in which these characters appear (Allen, 2009 ). However, discussions on how audience perceptions of characters’ charismatic leadership influence character-related consumption behaviour have been scant. For film-tourism research, despite real examples of gangster characters driving tourism (Chen and Mele, 2017 ), whether tourists’ pilgrimage is caused by perceived charismatic leadership remains empirically unproven. Thus, this study fills a gap in marketing and tourism research.

Emotion contagion theory

Emotion contagion theory (ECT) is a psychological concept that describes the spread of emotions between individuals. It involves mimicking and synchronising expressions, vocalisations, postures, and movements, resulting in shared emotional experiences (Hatfield et al. 1993 ). Emotional contagion is believed to occur when the subconscious and automatic transfer of emotions takes place between people, according to the instinctive, primitive contagion approach (Barsade 2002 ). Thus, symptoms of emotional contagion include the uncontrollable spread of feelings without the individual being aware of them. Emotional contagion is not only a process of emotion transmission but also a process in which individuals or groups influence others’ attitudes or behaviour by inducing emotional states (Schoenewolf 1990 ; Du et al. 2010 ).

Initial studies on emotional contagion focused on face-to-face interactions. However, modern mass media, including film, newspaper, radio, television, and social media, can spread emotions across large audiences, transcending geographical boundaries. Döveling et al. ( 2010 ) emphasised that contemporary mass media has an even greater influence than it has been commonly perceived owing to their potential to trigger the dissemination of not only information but also emotions. Emotional contagion is particularly common during film and TV viewing, offering a unique experience of audio-visual narrative to audiences (Coplan 2011 ). Coplan ( 2006 ) posits that emotional contagion occurs during film viewing as it does in real life, which results from direct sensory engagement and reflective feedback.

Characters are undoubtedly a crucial element of a film experience, as the viewer is ‘infected’ by the mood or emotion of the characters (Eder 2010 ). As a result, the study of film-induced tourism has underlined the importance of characters in film, TV drama and other forms of screened media. Research on film-induced tourism identified that emotional contagion, which often originates in movie characters, is a major influence on tourists’ behaviour (Podoshen 2013 ; Wu and Lai 2021 ). An empathic connection to the storyline and characters of films can enhance the connection between the viewer and the location (Oshriyeh and Capriello 2022 ). Famous characters attract tourists to film theme parks and provide a fantasy experience to interact with cartoon or fictional characters (Florido-Benítez 2023 ). Specifically, tourists share more images on social media of locations that have more exposure time on screen, that contain more crucial squences to plot structure, and that have more closely interactions between the characters and the scenarios (Gómez-Morales et al. 2022 ). Existing research validates that numerous characteristics of a character can be a motivation for film tourists, including nostalgia, romanticism, cuteness, fantasy, distinctive makeup, unique costumes and cultural meanings (Podoshen 2013 ; Ng and Chan 2019 ; Xu et al. 2022 ). However, attention has rarely examined the character’s personality traits related to the storyline. Moreover, the personality traits of the villain character that can influence emotional contagion remain unknown. Whereas in the real world, celebrities can create emotional contagion by demonstrating charismatic leadership on social media or television (Cherulnik et al. 2001 ; Lee and Theokary 2021 ), the effectiveness of a character’s charismatic leadership on the audience still needs verification in the fictional world of cinema. This study fills these gaps by exploring the effect of perceived charismatic leadership on emotional contagion derived from fictional characters.

Pleasure emotion, arousal emotion and admiration emotion

Emotions refer to feelings experienced and expressed, accompanied by physical solid reactions (Grindstaff and Murray 2015 ). The film character’s linguistic and nonverbal expressions of emotion are the most crucial source of triggering the audience’s emotions (Feng and O’Halloran 2013 ). In this study, emotions refer to audiences’ different personal reactions when they see a film or watch television. According to Bartsch ( 2012 ), emotion is considered the core of media entertainment such as films, novels, television, videos and computer games; people’s emotional investment in film and TV characters is related to the role of emotion in satisfying social and cognitive needs. In the framework of the SOR model, emotion, as an organism, contributes to consumers’ willingness to purchase online and tourists’ intention to visit a destination (Thomas and Mathew 2018 ; Li et al. 2022 ). In several different studies, pleasure, arousal and admiration were confirmed to influence audiences’ willingness or behaviour to participate in film tourism (Im and Chon 2008 ; Yen and Croy 2013 ; Di-Clemente et al. 2022 ). Therefore, this research categorises emotion into pleasure, arousal and admiration emotions.

Pleasure is a feeling of contentment, happiness or fulfilment (Perea y Monsuwé et al. 2004 ). In the context of this study, pleasure emotion can be defined as sensations of happiness, satisfaction, relaxation and joy that audiences experience when they see a film or watch television. In the film The Lion King (1994), the main character, Simba, who has charismatic leadership, wins the hearts of the audiences and creates pleasure in them (Reiner 2009 ). In the romance series film The Twilight Saga (2008–2012), when female audiences see the film’s male characters, Edward and Jacob, who have different leadership styles, they substitute themselves with the female character Bella, creating a sense of pleasure and satisfaction (Taylor 2012 ). In the film Henry V (1989), Henry is a morally flawed charismatic leader with an inspirational style and charismatic personality; not only did he bring positive emotional value, but he also promised glory to his followers (Warner 2007 ). Therefore, the following hypothesis is formulated:

H1: Perceived charismatic leadership positively influences pleasure emotion.

Arousal is the feeling of excitement, surprise, stimulation, activity or alertness (Floyd 1997 ; Perea y Monsuwé et al. 2004 ) and refers to the intensity of emotions (Pastor et al. 2007 ). In this study, arousal emotion refers to the various, more intense physical and emotional reactions evoked in audiences when watching a film or television. In art psychology, complex, novel, uncertain or conflicting stimuli have been shown to heighten the arousal emotion (Silvia 2005 ). Katniss Everdeen, the heroine of The Hunger Games trilogy (2008–2010), has impressed audiences with the thrills, violence and hardships she has endured on her journey to adulthood and has evoked a wide range of emotions (Irwin 2012 ). One of the defining trends of the contemporary golden era of TV fiction has been the popularity of antiheroes as protagonists; the antihero has become the critical element of drama conflict, bringing contradiction and emotion into the story (Gernsbacher et al. 1992 ). As a film’s success is primarily determined by its ability to evoke moral emotions in viewers, cultivating attitudes of sympathy and antipathy towards its various characters is necessary (Carroll 2010 ). Villains with charismatic leadership in the film Bonnie and Clyde (1967) evoke a fresh emotional reaction in gangster films; in essence, it uses aesthetic values to obscure moral values and then reveal the latent moral values with great force. Therefore, the following hypothesis is formulated:

H2: Perceived charismatic leadership positively influences arousal emotion.

Admiration is a kind of positive emotion that relates to the ability of people to perform rare and difficult feats with skills (Algoe and Haidt 2009 ). When people see extraordinary abilities in others, they develop feelings of admiration (Immordino-Yang et al. 2009 ). In the context of the film as a marketing tool, the success of film-induced tourism derives from the audience’s admiration for film celebrities (Zeng et al. 2023 ). Admiration elicited by film characters can come not only from heroes but also from villains. Many studies show that admiration appears in villainous characters because these characters have superior qualities, which usually give the audience a sense of honour and empathy, among others (Eaton 2010 ; Kjeldgaard-Christiansen et al. 2021 ). According to Wei ( 2023 ), the film’s aesthetic treatment of form, style and content can fascinate audiences with the amoral qualities of an evil character and generate admiration. Villainous characters with charismatic, positive qualities are more likely to inspire admiration from the audience (Moss 2014 ). Admiration is the important emotional outcome of charismatic leadership (Sy et al. 2018 ). However, both villainous and heroic leadership can lead to admiration due to the blindness that often goes along with such admiration (DeCelles and Pfarrer 2004 ). Daenerys Targaryen in Game of Thrones (2011–2019) is a fictional character with charismatic leadership; her image reflects danger and power, leading audiences’ admiration towards her (Khalifa-Gueta 2022 ). Having a particular type of moral flaw can remarkably enhance the aesthetic value of a work. As charismatic villain in The Soprano (1999–2007), Tony Soprano has attracted a global audience in admiration of his fictional character, which made people recognise the dangerous appeal of charismatic leaders (Eaton, 2012 ). Therefore, the following hypothesis is formulated:

H3: Perceived charismatic leadership positively influences admiration emotion.

Place attachment

Place attachment, initially defined as an emotional bond with an environment providing comfort and safety, leads to the formation of emotions and personal behaviour (Kyle et al. 2004 ). It signifies the emotional connection between a tourist and a destination (Krolikowska et al. 2019 ; Zhou et al. 2023 ) and is linked to positive emotions and behavioural intentions resulting from one’s interaction with the environment (Hosany et al. 2019 ; Abbasi et al. 2022 ). Due to its abstract nature, place attachment is often discussed in two sub-dimensions: place dependence, reflecting a functional attachment, and place identity, representing a symbolic or emotional attachment (Williams and Vaske 2003 ; Halpenny 2010 ; Vada et al. 2019 ).

Owing to media exposure, tourists tend to form place attachments before visiting a particular location. Film-induced tourism research concluded that the symbolic meanings embedded in films can be transformed into an attachment to the places featured in a particular medium (Kim 2010 ; Hosany et al. 2019 ). When people are inspired to visit a destination or attraction after seeing being depicted in movies or dramas, their attachment to the place serves as a connection between that motivation and their actual visitation behaviour (Chen 2017 ; Zhou et al. 2023 ). Film characters are found crucial to film tourism as they not only create a sense of place and authenticity in the destination but also create varying degrees of emotional attachment in the viewer (Lindsay 2009 ; Yen and Croy 2013 ). Transfer theory confirmed that emotional attachment to places depicted in a film, particularly those associated with an attractive fictional character, can create a sense of place attachment (Hosany et al. 2019 ). In many studies based on the SOR model, place attachment is considered a positive psychological response acting as an ‘R’ in the model (Zhu and Chiou 2022 ). Existing studies have found that different emotions vaguely affect place attachment, and the result can be influenced by the context of the study (Gross and Brown 2008 ; Ratcliffe and Korpela 2017 ). The impact of various emotions linked to film-induced tourism on each aspect of place attachment is not thoroughly explored. Therefore, the present study fills the gap in this area.

Pleasure-seeking is an important tourism push factor relevant to emotional needs and influences choice behaviour (Goossens 2000 ). Marketing tool commonly provides pleasure anticipation to attract travellers to the destination. In the study of virtual tours, an individual’s pleasure emotion was confirmed to positively affect place attachment on its two sub-dimensions, even if they had not visited the locale (Wirth et al. 2012 ). Consequently, if a film or TV drama audience develops pleasure emotions towards a certain character and storyline, the probability of developing place attachment to relevant locations is also quite high. Given this consideration, some hypotheses have been proposed as follows:

H4: Pleasure emotion positively influences place identity.

H5: Pleasure emotion positively influences place dependence.

Promotional stimuli can be measured in terms of their ability to arouse people by incorporating emotional information (Goossens 2000 ). The feeling of arousal, as part of emotional involvement, arises out of a particular stimulus or circumstance and has the properties and consequences of drive, which include the sense of seeking, processing information and making decisions (Rothschild 1984 ). Affective appraisal of arousal about a place in a person’s memory can often largely influence place attachment, including place identity and dependence (Ratcliffe and Korpela 2017 ). Excitement as a part of the arousal emotion arising from the virtual world has been validated to stimulate place attachment to the real place (Oleksy and Wnuk 2017 ). Given this consideration, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H6: Arousal emotion positively influences place identity.

H7: Arousal emotion positively influences place dependence.

A key emotional driver of celebrity influence on consumer-celebrity relationships is admiration, which is often elicited by forms of celebrity attachment (Moraes et al. 2019 ). A high degree of celebrity involvement is generally characterised by positive attitudes towards products or brands that are associated with celebrities that people admire (Ilicic and Webster 2021 ). In film-induced tourism research, both attachment and involvement towards the film star can be transferred to place attachment (Wong and Lai 2015 ; Chen 2017 ). Therefore, the following hypotheses arise from this study:

H8: Admiration emotion positively influences place identity.

H9: Admiration emotion positively influences place dependence.

Visit Intention

Visit intention, which is a person’s expectation or future action, refers to the probability of future travel (Su et al. 2020 ). Whereas most of the literature does not distinguish between tourists and visitors regarding visit intentions, Davari and Jang ( 2021 ) restricted tourists to non-visitors and defined visit intention as the decision to travel to a destination for the very first time.

In the context of film-induced tourism, visit intention is the willingness to visit places once depicted in film or TV drama, including filming sites and associated theme parks (Hahm and Wang 2011 ; Florido-Benítez 2023 ). Tourism research from the perspective of the SOR model often categorises visit intention as a behavioural response (Hsiao and Tang 2021 ). The tourism industry relies heavily on marketing, and operators often use mass media to shape destinations to attract tourists (Leung and Jiang 2018 ; Baber and Baber 2022 ). Apart from bringing brand equity to the destination, a proper marketing strategy also strengthens the emotional attachment of tourists to the destination (Chi et al. 2020 ; Teng and Chen 2020 ).

Tourists can transfer their enjoyment of a person or thing to a certain destination that they have never visited before (Zhang et al. 2020 ). Min et al. ( 2019 ) used SOR theory to suggest further that music-induced emotions can lead to tourist visitation, and such emotions include pleasures and arousal. Kim and Kim ( 2017 ) demonstrated that fictional characters in film and TV drama strongly influence viewers’ emotional engagement, and that a mental and emotional engagement with the film is expected from film tourists. Xu and Tan ( 2019 ) pointed out that fictional characters in film and TV drama also induce admiration, which is an emotion that also prompts audiences’ longing to be close to filming sites. Admiration can serve as a driving force behind their inclination to embark on a visit, precisely encapsulating the essence of film tourism (Ono et al. 2020 ). Therefore, the following hypotheses arise from this study:

H10: Pleasure emotion positively influences visit intention.

H11: Arousal emotion positively influences visit intention.

H12: Admiration emotion positively influences visit intention.

Some researchers suggested that place attachment is an important assessment that can be used to evaluate an individual’s visit intention (Cho 2021 ; Wan et al. 2021 ). Specifically, place dependence is an intentional mental activity that shows an individual’s tendency to act on a place (Borden and Schettino 2010 ; Halpenny, 2010 ). Place attachment promotes a strong association between behavioural tendencies and place identity (Neuvonen et al. 2014 ). Place identity involves the perception of a place by an individual (Liu et al. 2021 ). A strong sense of place attachment is formed in the psychological response; most importantly, it becomes an important factor in promoting film tourism (Hosany et al. 2019 ). With the support of other technologies, the sense of attachment generated without the need for physical experience can also have a positive impact on visit intention. The introduction of VR virtual technology allows even unvisited destinations to create attachments and induce their visit intention (Atzeni et al. 2021 ). Therefore, the following hypotheses arise from this study:

H13: Place dependence will have a positive influence on visit intention.

H14: Place identity will have a positive influence on visit intention.

Reception Aesthetics and Justice Sensitivity

‘Expectation horizon’ is a fundamental concept in reception aesthetics theory. A literary work employs textual strategies, signals, familiar characteristics or implicit allusions to evoke memories of the familiar, stir specific emotions in the reader and create expectations (Jauss and Benzinger 1970 ). Various elements that filmmakers emphasised and transmitted were used to convey meanings to the audience (Xie et al. 2022 ). According to reception theory in film and television research, encoded information has multiple directivities and an open meaning. Decoding the information will occur as the audience identifies with the encoder’s ideology’s shape and meaning (Hall et al. 1980 ). In other words, the audience does not passively accept a creative work. Instead, audiences’ interpretations of the creative work are influenced by their unique cultural backgrounds and personal experiences.

People highly desire a world of justice; the expectation is the same in the fictional world of film (Welsh et al. 2011 ), demonstrating a realistic response to aesthetic reception theory. A longstanding and close connection has existed between matters of justice and popular superhero narrative films such as Marvel movies (Maruo-Schröder 2018 ). The ‘call to do justice’ expressing tendencies of superheroes in films and TV series have arguably become the foremost symbols of substantive justice in popular culture, achieving the right outcome even if it means sacrificing some aspects of procedural fairness since the 1940s (Bainbridge 2015 ). Narrative themes commonly incorporate vengeance and punishment for wrongdoing and their connection to justice such as Batman (1966), The Punisher (2004) and Spider-Man (2002) (Coyne et al. 2004 ; Holbert et al. 2016 ).

Justice is a fundamental value in human life (Lerner 1980 ). As a predictor of criminal justice-related emotions and behaviour, justice sensitivity reflects an individual’s concern for justice (Baumert et al. 2013 ). The key components of justice sensitivity include sensitivity to the suffering of others, a belief in the importance of justice and a motivation to take action to rectify injustice (Schmitt et al. 2005 ). An important aspect of justice sensitivity is emotional reactivity towards perceived injustices (Baumert and Schmitt 2016 ). A relatively stable and consistent personality variable, namely, justice sensitivity, has been shown to predict people’s reactions when they experience or witness injustice (Mohiyeddini and Schmitt 1997 ; Schmitt and Dörfel 1999 ). People of this type tend to protest injustice and work towards restoring justice (Schmitt 1996 ) and taking action against perpetrators even at their own expense (Fetchenhauer and Huang 2004 ). Accordingly, people with a high level of justice sensitivity may ruminate on injustices experienced longer and more intensely than people with a lower level of justice sensitivity (Schmitt 1996 ). Furthermore, scholars found that people with high justice sensitivity perceived more justice after a redress of injustice than people with low justice sensitivity (Baumert and Schmitt 2009 ).

In fact, a similar situation was portrayed when the audience saw the film. Using film clips that show intentional harm or help, Yoder and Decety ( 2014 ) investigated the effects of prosocial perspectives of justice sensitivity. People with higher levels of justice sensitivity developed stronger reactions to bad actions in areas of the brain responsible for understanding mental states, identifying others’ intentions and retaining goal representations (Yoder and Decety 2014 ). After witnessing injustice from film clips in Witness (1985), justice-sensitive individuals were more sensitive to unjust stimuli than negative control stimuli (Baumert et al. 2020 ). Baumert and Schmitt ( 2016 ) argued that a justice-sensitive person reacts strongly to subjective injustice, regardless of whether justice principles are being violated in a particular circumstance. Thus, the possibility of differences should exist in the emotional responses of audiences with different levels of justice sensitivities to the same film character.

For villainous characters, three hypotheses are formulated.

H15: Justice sensitivity negatively moderates the relationship between perceived charismatic leadership and pleasure emotion.

H16: Justice sensitivity negatively moderates the relationship between perceived charismatic leadership and arousal emotion.

H17: Justice sensitivity negatively moderates the relationship between perceived charismatic leadership and admiration emotion.

According to Hypotheses 1–17, Fig. 1 presents the theoretical framework for this study.

figure 1

Conceptual framework.

Research Methods

Study setting.

The Knockout (狂飙), a Chinese police and crime drama launched in January 2023, has received considerable attention. After its release, this TV drama has been reported to have attracted a cumulative audience of 319 million viewers on cable television networks in China; even more, the stock price of co-producer iQiyi, a commercial online streaming platform known for producing hit shows, rose by nearly 10 percent. Footnote 1 With the hit TV drama, Jiangmen—a city in Guangdong where this drama was filmed—has become an instantly popular tourist destination. According to the data cited by the Jiangmen government, the number of tourists at the filming location increased nearly fivefold from the previous year. Search heat increased by 130 percent. Footnote 2 Particularly, the filming locations related to the main villain character, Gao Qiqiang (高启强), have become pilgrimage sites for tourists. On social media platforms such as Tiktok and Xiaohongshu, many travel bloggers also posted videos or pictures of travel routes related to Gao, which attracted a wide range of views and likes. Footnote 3 ; Footnote 4 The local government has created a VR live-action map on the basis of the eight pick-up points related to Gao in the drama to easily facilitate tourists’ search for a spot to hit. Footnote 5 Accordingly, tourists can compare the live action with the drama footage and thus gain a profound impression of them. This reality is used as the context of this study to explore how the villainous character Gao Qiqiang’s perceived charismatic leadership in the fictional story affects the audience’s emotions, place attachment and behavioural intentions.

Measurements and data collection

This study developed a self-administered questionnaire on the basis of existing research. It rated each item on a seven-point Likert scale between 7 (strongly agree) and 1 (strongly disagree). The measurement items of perceived charismatic leadership towards a fictional character were developed from previous studies (Conger et al. 2000 ). These items were categorised into five dimensions, including strategic vision and articulation (7 items), personal risk (3 items), sensitivity to the environment (4 items), sensitivity to member needs (3 items) and unconventional behaviour (3 items). Items for assessing audience emotions were adopted from Meng et al. ( 2021 ). Four items measured audiences’ pleasure emotions triggered by a fictional character. Audiences’ arousal emotions were evaluated with three items. Four items were used to measure audiences’ admiration for a fictional character. The place attachment scale was adopted from Hosany et al. ( 2019 ) and divided into two independent dimensions, namely, place identity (5 items) and place dependence (4 items). A three-item scale of visit intention was developed from Han et al. ( 2010 ). A six-item scale measuring audiences’ justice sensitivity was developed from Sabbagh ( 2021 ). Translation accuracy is ensured by back-translation for all items in the Chinese version questionnaire. Some items were reworded to avoid confusion or misunderstandings and match the study context.

Additionally, 50 potential tourists were invited to participate in the pilot test. Pilot test respondents expressed no remarkable concerns. Finally, the measurement scale consisting of 49 items formed a central part of the questionnaire. Detailed information on all items can be found in Appendix 1 . Following this section is the collection of demographic information regarding the participants.

Based on previous research experience, the online panel survey method is well-accepted for studies of TV drama or film-induced tourism (Kim and Kim 2017 ; Kim et al. 2017 ). This method has many advantages, such as the ability to select precise target samples and the ability to collect data immediately (Grönlund and Strandberg 2014 ). Data collection was assisted by an online panel company in China with approximately 4 million members from the 1st of April to the 25th of April, 2023. The two criteria for selecting respondents for this study are as follows: (1) must have watched the TV drama series The Knockout and (2) had never travelled to Jiangmen. To reduce the generation of common method bias, the order of all items in the measurement scale section was randomised with the help of an online survey system. Based on the pilot test experience, the minimum time to complete the questionnaire in full was three and a half minutes. To improve the reliability of the data, all questionnaires with less than 3.5 min of response time were considered invalid. A total of 550 questionnaires were completed. After excluding 18 invalid forms, 532 completed questionnaires remained for further analysis.

Data analysis technology

As per recommendation by Hair Jr et al. ( 2022 ), PLS-SEM has been validated to handle structurally complex research models and to conduct exploratory studies efficiently. In tourism research, particularly in the context of film-induced tourism, PLS-SEM has been demonstrated as an effective method for handling theoretical models with moderating variables (Wu and Lai 2021 ; Yang et al. 2022 ). Given that the research model in this study is structurally complex, that is, possessing a high-order independent variable and a moderating variable, PLS-SEM will be utilised to validate the study’s theoretical model. According to the ten-time rule, 490 samples are this study’s minimum sample size for PSL-SEM. The sample size of 532 obtained during the data collection phase thus fulfilled the requirement for conducting further analyses (Hair et al. 2011 ).

Sample Profile

Table 1 shows that women comprised the majority of respondents, accounting for 66.17% of the overall respondents. More than 60% of respondents were 36–45. Regarding education level, 95.86% of respondents possess a college diploma or above, indicating a high education level. The income of nearly half of the respondents ranges from RMB 5,001 and 10,000 a month. By contrast, 29.51% have a monthly income between RMB 10,001 and 20,000. Respondents who did not reside in Guangdong Province accounted for 79.89%.

Common method bias

Although in terms of procedural design, this study utilised a questionnaire distribution system in which the measurement items were accessible for respondents to answer in a random order with the goal of reducing the possibility of Common Method Bias (CMB), a validation step after data collection remained essential. Two statistical verification methods were used for statistical validation. As a first step, validation of the CMB problem was conducted using Harman’s one-factor test. One factor explained 30.36% of the variance, less than the 50% threshold (Podsakoff et al. 2012 ). Additionally, the pathological VIF measurements ranged from 1.042 to 2.902, which is below the critical value of 3.3; this finding indicates that the CMB was not a concern (Kock 2015 ).

Measurement Model

In the research model, one construct, namely, perceived charismatic leadership, is a high-order component; accordingly, the two-stage approach for estimating reliability and convergent validity was employed (Hair Jr et al. 2022 ).

In the first stage, the measurement model for low-order constructs and first-order dimensions of perceived charismatic leadership is evaluated. Cronbach’s α (0.706 to 0.936) and the Composite reliability values (0.836 to 0.954) are greater than 0.7, confirming the reliability in the first stage of the assessment. In addition, values of factor loading (0.715 to 0.952) and AVE (0.584 to 0.856) were above 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. This finding indicates that the measurement model assessment in the first stage has acceptable convergent validity. Table 2 summarises the first stage’s assessment.

The second stage evaluates the measurement model for high-order components of perceived charismatic leadership. Factor loadings for the five sub-dimensions onto the perceived charismatic leadership construct were greater than 0.7. Composite reliability, Cronbach’s α and AVE are all above the threshold, confirming acceptable results of the assessment in the second stage (see Table 3 for details).

Combining the Fornell-Larcker criterion with an HTMT analysis was used to estimate the discriminant validity of the measurement model. Given that the square root of the AVE is greater than the correlation between the constructs and all of the HTMT values are under 0.85, the satisfaction of discriminant validity can be confirmed (see Table 4 for further details).

Structural Model

To determine whether or not the structural model accurately predicted the data, the values of R 2 and Q 2 were used as a first step in the structural model evaluation process. An acceptable R 2 and Q 2 must be larger than 0.1 and 0, respectively. Table 5 shows that the R 2 value ranges from 0.103 to 0.594, whilst the Q 2 value ranges from 0.414 to 0.581. Consequently, these results reliably predict the efficiency of the structural model.

A bootstrapping method involving 5000 resamples was used to determine whether the constructs were statistically significant. Figure 2 and Table 6 illustrate the arithmetic diagram and detailed calculation results in SmartPLS software, respectively. Three significant associations exist between perceived charismatic leadership and emotions and are reflected in the establishment of H1, H2 and H3. As for the relationship between the three types of emotions and place attachment, all hypotheses were verified except for the statistically insignificant relationship between pleasure emotion and place identity. That is, H5 is unacceptable; whereas H4 and H5 to H9 are acceptable. As for the hypotheses related to visit intention, the validation results showed that the effect of pleasure and admiration emotion on visit intention is insignificant. This finding is reflected in the fact that H10 and H12 are invalid. The effect of arousal emotion and place attachment on visit intention is significant; thus H11, H13 and H14 are valid.

figure 2

Bootstrapping with 5,000 samples in SmartPLS.

Hypotheses related to moderating effects were also examined using a bootstrapping technique. The interactive effect of justice sensitivity and perceived charismatic leadership are significantly associated with pleasure emotion (β = −0.114, t  = 2.856), arousal emotion (β = −0.143, t  = 4.042) and admiration emotions (β = −0.112, t = 2.88) suggesting that the moderating effect of justice sensitivity is supported. Thus, H15, H16 and H17 are supported. Figures 3 – 5 illustrate the results of the simple slope analysis. Differences in the slope of the line due to different degrees of judicial sensitivity indicate the negative moderation effect of justice sensitivity.

figure 3

Simple slope test (pleasure emotion as dependent variable).

figure 4

Simple slope test (arousal emotion as dependent variable).

figure 5

Simple slope test (admiration emotion as dependent variable).

As the final part of the structural modelling assessment for this study, indirect effects are also analysed to determine the degree of complexity of the relationships between the variables. Table 7 shows nine indirect paths (IPs) for forming visit intention by perceived leadership. All seven IPs are significant except IP3 and IP7, which are insignificant. Notably, IP2’s significance explains H10’s insignificance because place dependence fully mediates the relationship between pleasure emotion and visit intention. The establishment of IP8 and IP9 explains why H12 is not supported. The relationship between admiration emotion and visit intention is fully mediated by place attachment.

Discussion and conclusions

As mentioned in the literature review, research on film tourism has increasingly focused on film characters and story elements that are easily communicated through social media, but little is known regarding the antecedents of film tourists’ behaviour, particularly in relation to plots and character traits. This study aims to introduce perceived charismatic leadership by analysing the emotional contagion of audiences triggered by the popular Chinese TV drama The Knockout and its evil character, Gao Qiqiang, and to develop a novel and conceptual model for explaining film tourists’ visit intention. Up until now, a set of evidence supports that perceived charismatic leadership has a significant impact on emotional contagion and is therefore a driving force behind film tourism. A brief discussion of the key findings is provided below.

Firstly, perceived charismatic leadership has a positive impact on pleasure emotion (H1), arousal emotion (H2) and admiration emotion (H3). Given that these three emotions are considered important indicators in marketing research related to emotional contagion, the perceived charismatic leadership towards evil characters in the film can be inferred to have a significant impact on the emotional contagion of the audience. This finding is consistent with previous studies in film narrative studies (Long 2017 ; Kuri and Kaufman 2020 ). In contrast to the abstract nature of film and TV drama theories and their absence of empirical validation, this study empirically validated character arc theory and charismatic leadership theory of film and TV drama narratives by using empirical methods as well as linking them with tourism marketing theories. By comparing the degree to which the three emotions were affected, this study also found that admiration emotion was most affected by perceived charismatic leadership (H3: β = 0.47). This result is consistent with findings from organisational behaviour research (Sy et al. 2018 ) and extends the conclusions from real individuals to fictional characters.

Secondly, results demonstrate the complex relationship of emotional contagion with place attachment and visit intention. Pleasure emotion has a positive impact on place dependence (H4) and insignificant effect on place identity (H5). This result indicates that the pleasurable emotion of the audience is responsible for making film tourism more attractive than other destinations. However, the audience’s emotional attachment to the film tourism was unaffected. The result that pleasure emotion had no statistically significant effect on place identity has also appeared in previous studies (Gross and Brown 2008 ; Ratcliffe and Korpela 2017 ). However, in the study of Ratcliffe and Korpela ( 2017 ), pleasure emotion has a negative impact on place dependence. The reason for the opposite result is likely to be that previous studies have not distinguished between travellers who have been to the destination before. Both arousal and admiration emotions positively affect place attachment (H6–H9). These findings provide credence to the research of Oleksy and Wnuk ( 2017 ), which focused on game marketing, and the research of Ilicic and Webster ( 2021 ), which focused on celebrity-related marketing. Compared with previous film tourism research (Wong and Lai 2015 ; Chen 2017 ), the results of this study extend the psychological factors influencing place attachment from celebrity attachment and involvement to three specific emotional dimensions.

Moreover, arousal emotion and place attachment positively affect visit intention (H11, H13 and H14). Pleasure and admiration do not significantly affect visit intention (H10 and H12). Although previous research on tourism advertising has validated that visit intention is positively influenced by arousal emotion and place attachment (Hosany et al. 2019 ), our study further clarifies the triangulation of emotion, place attachment and visit intention by examining indirect pathways. Place attachment demonstrates an important intermediary role in the relationship between emotion and visit intention (IP2, IP5, IP6, IP8 and IP9). The audience’s positive emotions are confirmed to have elicited a psychological response (place attachment), which later developed into a behavioural response (visit intention) as a result of its positive feelings towards the characters in the film and TV drama.

Finally, the audience’s justice sensitivity can undermine the positive emotions generated by the villainous characters’ perceived charismatic leadership. In other words, under the same perceived charismatic leadership influence, the higher the audience’s justice sensitivity, the less positive emotions are generated towards the villain character (H15–H17). Our study contests authority of reception aesthetics theory through an empirical approach, revealing that viewers’ values affect their evaluation of film and TV characters (Xie et al. 2022 ). Whereas villains can positively affect film tourism, justice cannot be ignored and is still expected to exist in the fictional world of film (Baumert and Schmitt, 2016 ; Baumert et al. 2020 ).

Theoretical and practical implications

This study introduces a comprehensive model based on film and TV drama narrative theory, ECT and the SOR model, which provides a deeper understanding of film tourism behaviour triggered by film characters and storylines and has theoretical and practical importance.

Theoretically, this study empirically links film and TV drama characterisation with emotional contagion theory, taking character arc and charismatic leadership on screenwriting beyond mere artistic creation to the realm of psychology and marketing. This study demonstrates that the perceived charismatic leadership of fictional characters can generate emotional contagion, establishing a theoretical foundation for future research on the relationship between virtual characters in screened media, such as AI or game characters, and their audiences’ psychology.

In addition, this study grants more exhaustive evidence to reception aesthetics theory by validating the relationship between the perceived charismatic leadership of an evil character and the audience’s justice sensitivity. Therefore, this study highlights the need to move beyond simply discussing the impact of character attractiveness on the audience whilst considering the values and cultural context of the different audiences to gain a better understanding of the complexities of emotional contagion theory.

Finally, this study extends the push-pull theory related to film tourism. Previous studies tend to discuss the stimulation of film tourists by motivation factors from the perspective of film tourists’ emotions and needs. The perceived charismatic leadership validated in this study is closely related to the story and film characters and is an antecedent of emotional contagion for the audience. Prior research considered film-induced tourism as a sporadic behaviour, primarily due to the limited exploration of the “pull” factors related to film plots and characters in these push-pull theory-based studies (Chemli et al. 2022 ). The findings of this study enhance the potential for film-induced tourism to become a more predictable activity. Notably, in the context of the rapid development of social media and digital streaming platforms, this research provides a theoretical foundation for future studies focusing on uncovering additional film-induced tourism marketing elements conducive to social media dissemination. In contrast to previous research, which predominantly focused on decent characters in film-induced tourism, this study broadens the scope and subject of film-induced tourism research. Investigating villainous characters is crucial for shaping tourism marketing strategies and can expand the perspectives of tourism marketers.

Thus, from a practical point of view, this study demonstrates that villain characters can also be involved in film tourism marketing. The premise of villainous characters’ involvement in film-induced tourism is that tourism marketers must thoroughly understand the storyline of film and TV drama and assess whether the villainous characters demonstrate charismatic leadership in the story of film and TV drama. Destination management organisations (DMOs) can strategically arrange filming locations that showcase the charismatic leadership qualities of these antagonist characters in the most prominent tourist destinations they aim to promote. The success of film-induced tourism relies on the ability to anticipate the market types and sizes that find a particular destination attractive and to develop corresponding plans, thus addressing sustainability concerns (Nakayama 2022 ). As a result, DMOs and tourism marketers must stay attuned to the latest reactions on social media regarding characters and storylines from screened media contents. This enables them to follow online trends while understanding the interests of the relevant audience, privileging the development of targeted marketing strategies. Moreover, these marketing strategies must consider film tourists’ values and cultural backgrounds, as this process is critical in determining whether villainous characters can stimulate the intention to travel.

In addition, this study sheds light on the practice of film screenwriting. Creating villainous characters is necessary for film screenwriting under the influence of the wave of anti-heroism. When creating a screenplay, screenwriters need to consider a storyline that can fully demonstrate the charismatic leadership of the villain to enhance the villainous character’s appeal to the audience. Moreover, the overall sense of justice can affect the viewing experience of specific viewers.

Limitations and future research

Despite the practical and theoretical significance of this study’s findings, some limitations persist. The measures of perceived charismatic leadership and emotions were primarily derived from Chinese TV dramas and Chinese viewers. The study results are not necessarily applicable to TV dramas and viewers in other countries and regions (Ng and Chan 2019 ). Therefore, future research could discuss possible differences in results across geographical locations and cultural contexts.

Secondly, this study focused on a trait of a villainous character in a police and crime drama, which may not necessarily apply to fictional characters in other media (Puche-Ruiz 2022 ). Future studies may consider gathering other factors from different types of screened media, such as documentaries, comedies, cartoons and games, among others.

Lastly, the data collected for this study mostly originated from viewers who had never travelled to the destinations depicted in the films or TV dramas. Future research could collect tourists who have visited film tourism destinations and discuss the influence of characters on film tourists’ behavioural intentions after watching the film. Simultaneously, integrating factors related to characters and storylines into research based on the push-pull theory can further establish the significance of these elements within the realm of film-induced tourism studies.

Data availability

The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available as a form of supplementary file and/or from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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Conceptualisation, R.Y.; Methodology, R.Y. and J.Y.; Data curation, R.Y. and J.Y.; Formal analysis, J.Y. and R.Y.; Investigation, J.Y. and R.Y.; Visualisation, R.Y. and J.Y.; Supervision, J.Y.; Validation, J.Y.; Project administration, J.Y.; Funding acquisition, R.Y.; Resources, R.Y.; Writing-original draft, R.Y. and J.Y.; Writing—review & editing, R.Y. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

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Yao, R., Yang, J. Exploring the appeal of villainous characters in film-induced tourism: perceived charismatic leadership and justice sensitivity. Humanit Soc Sci Commun 11 , 267 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-024-02747-6

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Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, “we've seen it in the movies, let's see if it's true”: authenticity and displacement in film‐induced tourism.

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes

ISSN : 1755-4217

Article publication date: 12 April 2011

The purpose of this paper is to investigate what the authors have termed displacement theory (grounded in aspects of authenticity) within the larger phenomenon of film‐induced tourism and to present a clearer understanding of the inherent implications and opportunities for economic development this may bring.

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives are achieved through critical review of previous film tourism literature combined with use of blog and key‐informant interview research. The research follows an interpretive paradigm and address a gap in the film‐induced tourism literature on the area of authenticity and displacement.

Key research findings revealed that “3” distinct tourist types exist in film tourism which gives rise to “3” distinct markets. Authenticity is important to film tourists, especially when displacement occurs. There is a lack of industry understanding and recognition which ignores film locations when displacement occurs.

Practical implications

There needs to be greater recognition and acceptance of film‐induced tourism, closer collaboration between tourist authorities and film bodies, greater efforts to develop and promote the film locations as opposed to the story settings/places depicted, retention or re‐creation of film sets – building simulacra if necessary to retain more essence of film authenticity and greater use of qualitative research, especially through new and innovative means such as the blog techniques used in this study.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a gap in previous film tourism literature regarding authenticity and displacement and as such makes an original contribution to this field. New innovative methods (using blog research) also bring a fresh approach. This paper will be of value to academics and industry practitioners interested in film‐induced tourism and indeed tourism in general, as well as students studying/researching this important field.

  • Tourism development

Bolan, P. , Boy, S. and Bell, J. (2011), "“We've seen it in the movies, let's see if it's true”: Authenticity and displacement in film‐induced tourism", Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes , Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 102-116. https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211111122970

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Sustainable development for film-induced tourism: from the perspective of value perception.

Kui Yi,

  • 1 School of Business and Trade, Nanchang Institute of Science & Technology, Nanchang, China
  • 2 Media Art Research Center, Jiangxi Institute of Fashion Technology, Nanchang, China
  • 3 Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou, China
  • 4 Department of Art Integration, Daejin University, Pocheon, South Korea
  • 5 School of Business, Foshan University, Foshan, China
  • 6 College of Management, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China
  • 7 School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China

The tourism economy has become a new driving force for economic growth, and film-induced tourism in particular has been widely proven to promote economic and cultural development. Few studies focus on analyzing the inherent characteristics of the economic and cultural effects of film-induced tourism, and the research on the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development of film-induced tourism is relatively limited. Therefore, from the perspective of the integration of culture and industry, the research explores the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development between film-induced culture and film-induced industry through a questionnaire survey of 1,054 tourism management personnel, combined with quantitative empirical methods. The conclusion shows that the degree of integration of culture and tourism is an important mediating role that affects the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development of film-induced tourism, and the development of film-induced tourism depends on the integration of culture and industry. Constructing a diversified industrial integration model according to local conditions and determining the development path of resource, technology, market, product integration, and administrative management can become the general trend of the future development of film-induced tourism.

Introduction

As an emerging industry, cultural tourism can make up for the economic difficulties caused by the weak growth of the primary and secondary industries, and replace it as a new driving force for economic growth ( Liu et al., 2021b ). As recognized by both the academic community and industry, cultural tourism products greatly impact tourism destination development; souvenir, local cuisines, and films/television programs can promote tourism destinations ( Liu et al., 2021a , b ). Among them, film/television is the most influential form of art in today’s society. Film and television can help potential tourists to have some sensory and emotional cognitions through empathy and vicarious feeling to the tourist destinations mentioned in the films ( Kim and Kim, 2018 ; Pérez García et al., 2021 ), thereby generating tourism motivation and ultimately promoting tourism behaviors. Film and television, without exception, have integrated commerciality and artistry since birth, and form a unique form of culture ( Riley et al., 1998 ).

Hence, these significant economic effects have been widely investigated by researchers from different perspectives, such as promotion of local brands ( Liu et al., 2021a ), and changes in aesthetic information dissemination ( Kim et al., 2019 ). With in-depth studies, researchers have identified the profound connotation of the rapid development of film-induced tourism: the extension of the immersive tourism ( Marafa et al., 2020 ), the endowment of modern fashion labels for tourism destinations ( Teng and Chen, 2020 ), and multi-dimensional integrations of modern media technology and traditional entertainment industry.

Culture is the soul of tourism, and tourism is an important carrier of culture. Although the experience of film/television is different from tourism—the former is provided to people by means of image transmission, and the latter is realized by the way of people moving—but the essence is both cultural experience ( Syafrini et al., 2020 ; Senbeto and Hon, 2021 ). The connotation and the applied research of film-induced tourism reveal the complexity and diversity of the integrations of modern media and traditional entertainment.

The traditional glimmering style sightseeing tour is just a shallow taste, and often cannot make tourists get a deep enjoyment. Film-induced tourism is different, mature film-induced tourism products can bring tourists wholehearted relaxation and enjoyment, and make tourists’ self-worth better reflect. To clarify the inherent characteristics of film-induced tourism, the interactive observation of both the film and television subject and the tourism subject provides a feasible solution. Film/television programs are the expression and substantiveness of culture ( Yi et al., 2020 ). Tourism as an economic carrier is the pattern and standardization of the industry ( Yen and Croy, 2016 ). The development of film-induced tourism relies on the mutual integration of culture and industry.

With the evolution of the world, sustainable development is leading the way in every industry including tourism. The early understanding of sustainable development in the academic community refers to meeting the needs of the current generation without damaging the needs of future generations’ development ( Jabareen, 2008 ; Yi et al., 2021a ). Based on this concept, the United Nations has formulated 17 sustainable development goals, proposed new standards for the prosperity and development of the earth, and standardized the assessment methods and indicators for sustainable development ( Böhringer and Jochem, 2007 ; Hacking and Guthrie, 2008 ; Singh et al., 2009 ). Since then, the concept of sustainable development has been fully implemented and has gradually become a well-known concept from the perspectives of the environment, economy, and society ( Adedoyin et al., 2021 ; Diep et al., 2021 ; Zhou et al., 2021 ). Currently, these three dimensions are identified as the motivations and mechanisms of sustainable development ( Steffen et al., 2015 ; Svensson and Wagner, 2015 ). Specifically, challenges in sustainable development are vital issues for exploring social and economic development. Economic benefits are the main dynamics of continuous action ( Hoogendoorn et al., 2015 ), with social effects as the main motivation of practice ( Williams and Schaefer, 2013 ), and environmental effects as the basic assurances of all activities ( Halme and Korpela, 2014 ). Hence, sustainable development research help explore the path of the industry development. The dynamic mechanism of sustainable development builds the foundation for the long-term influence of the culture and provides the way for continuous development and expansion of industrial effects ( Waheed et al., 2020 ). At present, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have investigated the dynamic mechanism of the sustainable development for film-induced tourism. The existing studies which include the sustainable development dynamic mechanism can be divided into three aspects:

(1) The macro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Wen et al., 2018 ); (2) The sustainable development concept in the exploration of film-induced tourism ( Gong and Tung, 2017 ; Teng, 2021 ); (3) The micro sustainable development concept of film-induced tourism ( Suni and Komppula, 2012 ). Afterward, most of the studies believe that the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development is affected by its resource development, innovation mode, or artistic attractions. However, these have not yet conducted a quantitative study of the endogenous interactions between culture and industry. Accordingly, we try to fill the research gap; we study the relationship between culture and industry in film-induced tourism through structural equation modeling to promote the sustainable development dynamics brought about the integration of culture and industry.

Literature Review

Film-induced culture and tourism industry.

Film-induced culture plays a vital role in the global advertisement system. It is an effective approach for the advertisement of regional values and soft power, and it is a good pathway for cultural output and value proposition ( Yi et al., 2020 ). With the advance of economic development, consumers have broken the restrictions of basic needs spending ( Sun et al., 2017 , 2021 ; Du et al., 2020 ), and the needs for higher-level cultural consumption are becoming increasingly important ( Wang et al., 2020a , b ; Li et al., 2021 ). Film-induced culture is by no means limited to entertainment culture, and film-induced products are by no means limited to spiritual and cultural consumer goods ( Chen, 2018 ). Film/television is also a mass media. Film-induced culture has an unprecedented impact on people’s ways of thinking, social cognition, behavioral habits, and values, showing unique cultural tension and becoming an important structure of people’s spiritual life ( Misra, 2000 ; Janssen et al., 2008 ). Otherwise, as a fast-growing important new tourism trend, film-induced tourism creates connections between characters, places, stories, and tourists, and is inspired to immerse themselves in films to relive film-generated and film-driven emotions ( Riley et al., 1998 ). Essentially, both film and tourism provide an opportunity to relive or experience, see and learn novelties through entertainment and fun ( Teng, 2021 ). Film-induced tourism increases the overall economic effect of tourism industry and establishes the bonds of film and tourism industry. It provides not only pleasure and satisfaction for film-induced tourists, but also adequate and novel learning experience. The latest research trends are moving toward merging or collaborating two fields that already have similar goals.

The integration of film-induced culture spreads information through film-induced programs to “maximize” the effect of tourism cultural brands ( Huang and Liu, 2018 ). The fundamental reason is that the penetration of film-induced culture has driven the transformation and upgrading of tourism consumption ( Michael et al., 2020 ), which in turn makes film-induced culture a resource for tourism development, amplifies the effect of cultural integration in the process of transformation, and further enhances the influence of the tourism industry ( Marafa et al., 2020 ). The establishment of film-induced cities and film-induced bases creates the advantages of film-induced culture agglomeration, and the innovative path of developing film-induced cultural resources oriented by the tourism industry is becoming more and more popular ( Ringle, 2018 ). Cultural resources are further optimized and reorganized, and film-induced culture will gain a series of new integrated development in the promotion of tourism industry model ( Xin and Mossig, 2017 ). On the one hand, the film-induced bases can be used for film/television production, and on the other hand, it is an important place for tourism activities, which truly reflects the integration from products, markets, enterprises, and industries in film-induced tourism industry ( Stuckey, 2021 ). Accordingly, some researchers believe that the establishment of Hollywood Studios in 1963 marked the official beginning of film-induced tourism. Hence, film-induced culture can promote the tourism industry to shape brand culture, integrate useful resources, guide consumer trends, and induce convergence effect for rapid development and innovation ( Wu and Lai, 2021 ). Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H1a: The development of film-induced culture is positively related to the growth of the tourism industry.
H1b: The cultural development in film-induced tourism is positively correlated to the degree of cultural and tourism integration.
H1c: The development of the tourism industry is positively correlated to the degree of culture and tourism integration.

Culture and Tourism Integration and Sustainable Development

The integration of culture and tourism is not only the objective need for the mutual prosperity of culture and tourism, but also the inevitable trend of the development. The elements compete, cooperate and co-evolve with each other, so that an emerging industry can be formed, and it has experienced “grinding-integration-harmony” of the dynamic development process ( Jovicic, 2016 ; Wang and Yi, 2020 ). Culture and tourism have a certain basis for mutual benefit and cooperation: for tourism, the integration of cultural-related content helps to acquire extensive knowledge, distant experience, and strong care; for culture, it is conducive to the protection and inheritance of cultural resources, image building, and propagation ( Loulanski and Loulanski, 2011 ; Jørgensen and McKercher, 2019 ). The integration of culture and tourism is an intimate contact between “poems and dreams,” which better meets people’s diverse needs for a beautiful life ( He et al., 2021 ). However, sustainable development refers to comprehensive and sustainable advancements in ecological, social, and economic aspects. The cognition that based on these three goals can be used to explore the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism.

In the dimension of sustainable ecological development, with the advent of the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution, the world is entering a new era. The utilization of resources is not limited to the development of physical resources but is more prone to the rational use of new resources, such as talented person, technology, intelligence, and data ( Waheed et al., 2020 ; Zhang et al., 2020 ; Li et al., 2021 ), cultural resources, such as historical culture, red culture, and folk culture, are integrated with tourism resources, such as landscape pastoral, to develop complementary advantages. The maximization of resource utilization has become the key to the sustainable development of the film-induced tourism society, and culture has become a regulator of various innovation factors, which promotes the scientific management of technological and industrial resources ( Delai and Takahashi, 2011 ; Liu et al., 2021b ). When transforming and utilizing film-induced cultural resources, do not trample or destroy the ecological environment for tourism development, and comprehensively optimize the tourism environment and tourism routes. Environmentalism and related laws and regulations have begun to pay attention to tourists’ needs ( Li et al., 2020 ). Hence, the further integration of culture and tourism can reflect the transformation of the overall ecological commitment ( Zhou et al., 2021 ), and the resulting human–environment relationship has become a new aspect of sustainable development.

In the dimension of sustainable social development, on the one hand, the improvement of cultural quality of the whole society is a prerequisite for the organic integration of culture and tourism ( Tien et al., 2021 ), with harmonious coexistence becoming the core aspect of economic and cultural development of the new era, tourists and other stakeholders of the film-induced tourism industry begins to focus on human capital development, social recognition, job creation, and health and safety-related issues ( Choi and Ng, 2011 ). With the deepening of research, researchers found that the above-mentioned problems are ideologically attributed to culture and are the society’s force for inducing the sustainable development of industries ( Cai and Zhou, 2014 ). The extension and connotation of tourism need the guidance of tourism culture. Cultural display or visitable production expands the scope of displayable culture, from material to non-material, to the integration of non-material and material, and then to the contemporary creative cultural display, which makes culture continuously “commoditized” ( Silberberg, 1995 ; Marques and Pinho, 2021 ). At present, many scholars have reached a consensus that the integration of culture and industry can promote the construction of the social community ( Jakhar, 2017 ; Yi et al., 2021b ) and promote the relevant members of the society to change their misconduct, thereby strengthening the sustainable development of the film and television industry and the tourism industry.

In the dimension of sustainable economic development, scholars generally agree that economic factors, which refer to the renewable and non-renewable resources invested in the production process, are composed of factors, such as cost, profit, and business development ( Mamede and Gomes, 2014 ; Wagner, 2015 ). Given the direct impact of economic effect on tourist activities is significant, most researchers directly view economic factors as the main driving force for the sustainable development of film-induced tourism, owing to the direct influence of economic effects on tourists’ tourism activities ( Horbach et al., 2013 ; Hojnik and Ruzzier, 2016 ). As been defined by researchers, sustainable economic development involves the exploration and innovation of business models, creating market opportunities, the processes of resolving unsustainable environmental and social problems ( Schaltegger et al., 2016 ). When film-induced culture is continuously produced into cultural tourism products, the commercial interests of tourism sales promote the industrialization and gradually form a complete industrial chain-cultural tourism industry. In the studies of film-induced tourism, many researchers view film-induced culture as a resource for creating new business models and market opportunities and regard the integration of film-induced culture with the tourism industry as a solution for unsustainable development problems. In summary, in film-induced tourism, in both the ecological, social, and economic dimensions, the integration of culture and industry will influence the path of sustainable development. Hence, the following hypotheses are proposed:

H2a: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the ecology (human–environment integration).
H2b: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and tourism industry is positively correlated to the sustainable development of the society (harmonious coexistence).
H2c: The degree of integration between film-induced culture and the tourism industry is positively related to the sustainable development of the economy.

Above all, we proposed the following effect hypothesis:

H3a: Film-induced tourism culture has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree;
H3b: Film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on sustainable development through integration degree.

Methodology

To get a better and professional understanding of the dynamic mechanism of the culture and industry associated with film-induced tourism, the research subjects are limited to the management staff of the film-induced tourism industry. A total of 1,200 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,054 valid questionnaires were collected, with a recovery rate of 87.8%. The collected questionnaires were randomly divided into two equal sets (527 questionnaires in each set): one dataset is used for exploratory factor analysis and the other is used for confirmatory factor analysis. The demographic characteristics of the sample population are shown in Table 1 . From Table 1 we can see, most of the responders are males (accounting for 68.9%), in the age groups of 25–35 and 36–45 (the total number of the two age groups accounting for 65.3%) and have a bachelor’s degree (accounting for 54.9%). 28% of the responders are tourism area managers; 34.7% of the responders are government department managers; and 37.3% of the responders are general staff. And the demographic characteristics of the responders generally follow the demographic distribution of the entire population in the area, indicating a good representativeness of the data and makes it an effective data source.

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Table 1 . Sample basic information.

We draw on the mature scales used in previous studies for reference, and the initial scale was formed after corresponding modifications according to research topic. Then, two scholars who have been engaged in film-induced tourism and sustainable development were invited for analysis and discussion, and the scale was modified and improved. We use 5-level Likert scale to measure all variables, with 1 indicating “very unimportant” and 5 indicating “very important.” The specific measurement items and reliability are shown in the appendix. In addition, SPSS 26.0 was used for validity test, and KMO was 0.906 (>0.8). The results show that the scale has good reliability and validity, indicating that there is internal consistency among the variables ( Table 2 ).

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Table 2 . Measurement items and reliability.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed ( Table 3 ) that P<0.01, and the Composite Reliability of all variables was 0.622–0.865, so that the polymerization validity and the convergence validity is good. AVE was in a reasonable range. Therefore, the results of CFA all meet the standard, and all dimensions have good convergence validity.

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Table 3 . Confirmatory factor analysis.

Correlation Analysis

Through the correlation coefficient test, it can be seen that the values below the diagonal are, respectively, the correlation coefficients between potential variables ( Table 4 ). Each potential variable has different connotations in theory, and each variable has relatively high correlation and good discriminant validity.

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Table 4 . Correlation analysis.

Goodness of Fit of the Structural Model

Based on the previous research results, the path relationship diagram between potential variables and observed variables has been built, the goodness of fit of the model to be verified have been tested from AMOS 26.0. The main fitting indicators all meet the ideal standard, that is, the model fitting effect is ideal.

Hypothesis Testing

In order to further test the hypothesis proposed above, we run a structural equation model with mediation (see Figure 1 ). The results are shown in Table 5 . There is a correlation between film-induced culture and film-induced industry ( r  = 0.720). Film-induced culture has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.590, C R  = 7.495, p  < 0.01); The film-induced tourism industry has a significant impact on the degree of integration ( r  = 0.441, C R  = 6.326, p  < 0.01), then hypothesis 1a, 1b, 1c are supported. The degree of integration has a significant positive impact on film-induced tourism ( r  = 0.836, C R  = 11.817, p  < 0.01), so hypothesis 2a, 2B, and 2C are also supported.

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Figure 1 . Structural equation model. FTC, film-induced tourism culture; FTI: film-induced tourism industry; DOI, degree of integration; SD, sustainable development of film-induced industry; IRBV, integrated resource-based view; IEBV, integrated ecology-based view; ISBV, integrated space-based view; ES, economic sustainability; HEC, human–environment coordination; HC, harmonious coexistence.

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Table 5 . Goodness of fit of the structural model.

Empirical Testing of Mediating Effects

In order to test the reliability of the path hypothesis, we further use Bootstrapping to calculate the mediating effect of culture and tourism integration. Bootstrapping test performs 3,000 samplings and selects a 95% confidence interval, then the final test results are shown in Table 6 , so both hypothesis H3a and H3b are assumed to hold ( Table 7 ).

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Table 6 . Hypothesis testing.

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Table 7 . Empirical testing of mediating effects.

Given previous scholars’ studies on film-induced tourism ( Ringle, 2018 ; Marafa et al., 2020 ), we assume that cultural tourism will significantly affect the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development. More specifically, we believe that the organic integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry will have a significant impact on economic, social, and ecological sustainable development, which are the three dimensions of sustainable development. The results generally support our hypothesis that we view culture and tourism as a systematic whole rather than separate them and that culture and tourism integration is not simply “culture + tourism” or “tourism + culture.” We also confirm that the degree of integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry plays an important mediate role in the sustainable development of film-induced tourism. Although culture and tourism seem to be combined with each other in contemporary society, they have not developed the sustainable development dynamics of products and services innovation, nor developed a systematic operation mechanism. Consequently, the integration of culture and tourism is not to mechanically copy the two independent elements, but the key lies in the functional replacement and format innovation, complementary advantages, and the optimal combination of industrial elements.

Managerial Implications

As culture and tourism are two huge and complex systems, both have relatively mature management operation mechanism, working path, industrial rules, and industry norms, while they are currently characterized by high growth and rapid development ( Richards, 2018 ; McKercher, 2020 ). Therefore, in constructing the path of the integration of culture and tourism to promote sustainable development, the resource characteristics, functional differences, and technological advantages of film-induced culture and tourism industry should be fully considered in theory, and their similarity and relevance should be taken into account. In practice, we should not only make full use of the location conditions, resource endowments, and social and economic systems of film-induced culture and tourism destinations, but constantly identify the intersection points of products, industries, and enterprises according to the changes in market demand, and construct diversified industrial integration modes according to local conditions to determine develop directions in the integration of resources, technology, market and products, and administrative management.

From the perspective of tourism industry, support the development of organization forms that meet the needs of film-induced tourism development. The integration of industry should finally be reflected in the integration of organizations. Although the fundamental dynamics for the development of film-induced tourism is the development of market demand ( Connell, 2005 ), it needs enterprises to be discovered and satisfied to find business opportunities. We suggest relevant departments relax film-induced tourism business licensing, strengthen information services, support enterprises to explore new business areas, support various cooperation, and even merger and acquisitions. From the perspective of film-induced culture, enrich the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism. Film-induced tourism should not be equated with general implanted advertising or simply build film-induced bases, but should dig deeply into the cultural connotation of film-induced tourism, closely focus on the core theme of film/television works, and deeply develop “post-film products” related to tourism derivative industry, and then systematically integrate them to form a cross-industry and compound film-induced tourism industry chain ( Young and Young, 2008 ; Fan and Yu, 2021 ). In order to promote sustainable development, we further suppose that we should strengthen the research on film-induced tourism and explore the development mode and regulations of film-induced tourism.

Limitations and Future Directions

This study provides some enlightenments on the theoretical exploration and practical management of film-induced tourism. Inevitably, there are several limitations, which can be addressed in future studies. First, the verification of the hypotheses is through the empirical analysis of collected questionnaires, lacking the support of actual cases. This can be improved by case analysis in follow-up studies. Second, the degree of integration between culture and industry is measured and defined by their characteristics in this study. However, the integration may also be affected by their underlying relationship. Their spatial production characteristics are also valuable for further investigation. In summary, in this research, the dynamic mechanism for sustainable development of film-induced tourism has been investigated, and conclusions have been drawn. This topic, however, still requires in-depth follow-up investigations from the research community.

Data Availability Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/supplementary material, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Ethics Statement

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by School of Economics and Management, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, China. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from the individual(s) for the publication of any potentially identifiable images or data included in this article.

Author Contributions

KY contributed to the empirical work, the analysis of the results, and the writing of the first draft. JinZ and JiaZ supported the total work of the KY. YZ and CX contributed to overall quality and supervision the part of literature organization and empirical work. RT contributed to developing research hypotheses and revised the overall manuscript. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This project was supported by the General Project of the National Social Science Fund of China: Tracking Research on the Development of Western Urban Politics (20BZZ055), General project of Humanities and Social Sciences General Research Program of the Ministry of Education: Research on the Generation Mechanism and Resolution Path of “Fragmentation Phenomenon” of Urban Social Governance (19YJA810002), Social Science Planning General Project in Jiangxi Province (No. 21XW06), Jiangxi Province Culture and Art Science Planning General Project (No. YG2021087), and Jiangxi Province Colleges Humanities and Social Science Project (No. GL20214).

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Keywords: film-induced tourism, tourism destination, sustainable development, dynamic mechanism, culture and industry integration

Citation: Yi K, Zhu J, Zeng Y, Xie C, Tu R and Zhu J (2022) Sustainable Development for Film-Induced Tourism: From the Perspective of Value Perception. Front. Psychol . 13:875084. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.875084

Received: 13 February 2022; Accepted: 13 May 2022; Published: 03 June 2022.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2022 Yi, Zhu, Zeng, Xie, Tu and Zhu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Yanqin Zeng, [email protected]

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other issues

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2001, Journal of Vacation Marketing

Within the literature on tourism marketing and place promotion, there is very little research related to movie sites, including television programme locations, in Britain. This study discusses the concept of movie-induced tourism in relation to the wider phenomenon of cultural and literary tourism. The challenge of measurement is considered via a small-scale survey of visitors to Notting Hill in London, the setting for the successful movie starring Hugh Grant and Julia Roberts. The results showed a visitor profile which is fairly consistent with the findings from the literature; frequency results indicated that many visitors to Notting Hill had a fairly clear destination image prior to their visit, a large number of respondents knew of other television and film locations and a majority of respondents would consider travelling to television or film locations in the future. About two-thirds of respondents agreed with the fact that television programmes and films encourage tourism to a certain area, which shows an overall awareness and acceptance of the phenomenon of movie-induced tourism within the survey population.

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IMAGES

  1. 1 Overview of movie-induced tourism

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COMMENTS

  1. Movie induced tourism

    Abstract. Movies provide the objects and subjects for the gaze of many people, and for some people, movies induce them to travel to the locations where they were filmed. The data gathered at 12 US locations supports earlier anecdotal accounts of movie-induced tourism. This paper extends from earlier studies by suggesting a variety of reasons ...

  2. Film tourism

    Film tourism, or film induced tourism, is a specialized or niche form of tourism where visitors explore locations and destinations which have become popular due to their appearance in films and television series. The term also encompasses tours to production studios as well as movies or television-related parks. This is supported by several regression analyses that suggest a high correlation ...

  3. Film-Induced Tourism: A Consumer Perspective

    Film-Induced Tourism: A Consumer Perspective. OmidOshriyeha. AntonellaCapriellob. a University of South Carolina, USA. b University of Piemonte Orientale, Italy. Contemporary Approaches Studying Customer Experience in Tourism Research. ISBN : 978-1-80117-633- , eISBN : 978-1-80117-632-3. Publication date: 8 August 2022.

  4. Film-Induced Tourism

    About this book. This research-based monograph presents an introduction to the concept of film-induced tourism, building on the work of the seminal first edition. This revised edition has been thoroughly updated with substantial additions including the areas of film-induced tourism in non-Western cultures, movie tours and contents tourism.

  5. Exploring the appeal of villainous characters in film-induced tourism

    Research on film-induced tourism identified that emotional contagion, which often originates in movie characters, is a major influence on tourists' behaviour (Podoshen 2013; Wu and Lai 2021).

  6. Film-Induced Tourism

    Sue Beeton's Film-Induced Tourism, published in 2016 as part of Channel View's "Aspects of Tourism" series, is a much needed update from the original 2005 first edition.Film tourism now receives much greater attention, also due to its increasing popularity amongst visitors that extends so far that some destinations are struggling to cope with tourist demand.

  7. Film-Induced Tourism

    Film-induced tourism can revitalise regional/rural communities and increase tourism to urban centres, however it carries with it its own unique problems. This book explores such elements, delving into the disciplines of sociology and psychology, along with the fields of destination marketing, community development and strategic planning.

  8. Film-induced Tourism

    Film-induced Tourism. Sue Beeton. Channel View Publications, Jan 1, 2005 - Business & Economics - 270 pages. Film-induced tourism has the potential to revitalise flagging regional/rural communities and increase tourism to urban centres, however, it carries with it unique problems. This book explores the downside of the phenomenon.

  9. Promoting Destinations via Film Tourism: An Empirical Identification of

    "Film-Induced Tourism: Motivations of Visitors to the Hobbiton Movie Set as Featured in The Lord of the Rings." In Proceedings of the International Tourism and Media Conference, edited by W. Frost, W. C. Croy, and S. Beeton.

  10. [PDF] MOVIE INDUCED TOURISM: A NEW TOURISM PHENOMENON

    MOVIE INDUCED TOURISM: A NEW TOURISM PHENOMENON. Mijalce Gjorgievski, Sinolicka Melles Trpkova. Published 1 June 2012. Business, Sociology. UTMS Journal of Economics. At the turn of the century, the tourism industry underwent a transformation triggered by the sweeping processes of globalization. The traditional forms of tourism were ...

  11. Film induced tourism: a systematic literature review

    Film-induced tourism is a kind of business that profits from attracting visitors inspired by beautiful sceneries of locations exposed in movie or drama and stories linked to the locations, through ...

  12. Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other issues

    The aim of this research is to map the concept of movie-induced tourism in rela-tion to the wider phenomenon of cultural and literary tourism, including the construc-tion of place. The challenge of measuring the concept is demonstrated through a small-scale research study of Notting Hill, the location, in relation to the eponymous Hollywood movie.

  13. Full article: The Advance of Film Tourism

    As the significance of the area of movie-induced tourism took hold, TV series also came under the spotlight by researchers from other countries such as the UK and Australia (Mordue, Citation 1999, Citation 2001; Beeton, Citation 2000, Citation 2001). This expanded field was coined as "film-induced tourism" to encompass television and cinema.

  14. Movie induced tourism

    Abstract. Movies provide the objects and subjects for the gaze of many people, and for some people, movies induce them to travel to the locations where they were filmed. The data gathered at 12 US locations supports earlier anecdotal accounts of movie-induced tourism. This paper extends from earlier studies by suggesting a variety of reasons ...

  15. Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other issues

    This study discusses the concept of movie-induced tourism in relation to the wider phenomenon of cultural and literary tourism. The challenge of measurement is considered via a small-scale survey of visitors to Notting Hill in London, the setting for the successful movie starring Hugh Grant and Julia Roberts. The results showed a visitor ...

  16. "We've seen it in the movies, let's see if it's true": Authenticity and

    Practical implications - There needs to be greater recognition and acceptance of film‐induced tourism, closer collaboration between tourist authorities and film bodies, greater efforts to develop and promote the film locations as opposed to the story settings/places depicted, retention or re‐creation of film sets - building simulacra if necessary to retain more essence of film ...

  17. Movie induced tourism

    Film induced tourism : a study on the potential of film induced tourism to motivate travelers. Laleh Khalili Tari. Business. 2013. Now a day in modern society, movies play an enormous role in human beings everyday life. We would accost some movie being awaited with great expectations and some others that they are not at the….

  18. Frontiers

    Discussion Conclusion. Given previous scholars' studies on film-induced tourism (Ringle, 2018; Marafa et al., 2020), we assume that cultural tourism will significantly affect the dynamic mechanism of sustainable development.More specifically, we believe that the organic integration of film-induced culture and tourism industry will have a significant impact on economic, social, and ecological ...

  19. (PDF) Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other

    The visit to such destinations `allows tourism, literature or movie induced, are contact with places closely associated with very similar; in fact, they can even be inter- Page 319 Movie-induced tourism Table 2: Pouros's location examples in the UK Film Title Location Pride and Prejudice (L) Lyme Park, Cheshire saw visitor numbers jump 178 per ...

  20. An Exploratory Study of Movie‐Induced Tourism: A Case of the Movie The

    Movies are creating tourist destinations (Heavens, 1995). There are several examples to support this growing phenomenon of movie‐induced tourism. After the movie The Bridges of Madison County hit t...

  21. PDF Movie Induced Tourism: a New Tourism Phenomenon

    at play a major role in choosing a destination.In his paper, titled Understanding the Film-Induced Tourist, 2004, Macionis explains this phenomenon. through the "push and pull" theory (Dann 1977). Pull factors are those which attract a tourist to a given destination (e.g., sunshine, beach, sea), whereas push factors are the ones predisposing ...

  22. (PDF) Movie-Induced Tourism: The Challenge of ...

    This study discusses the concept of movie-induced tourism in relation to the wider phenomenon of cultural and literary tourism. The challenge of measurement is considered via a small-scale survey ...

  23. (PDF) Understanding Film-induced Tourism

    UNDERSTANDING FILM-INDUCED TOURISM. SUE BEETON. School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, LaTrobe University, Victoria, Australia, 3086. Certain notions become accepted as "truths ...