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State of English in the Philippines: Should We Be Concerned?

article about english language tourism in the philippines

by Mike Cabigon Published in November 2015

The Philippines is recognized globally as one of the largest English-speaking nations with majority of its population having at least some degree of fluency in the language. English has always been one of the official languages of the Philippines and is spoken by more than 14 million Filipinos. It is the language of commerce and law, as well as the primary medium of instruction in education. 

Proficiency in the language is also one of the country’s strengths that has helped drive the economy and even made the Philippines the top voice outsourcing destination in the world, surpassing India in 2012. The influx of foreign learners of English is also on the rise due to the relatively more affordable but quality English as a Second Language (ESL) programs being offered locally.

However, in a recent roundtable discussion organized by the British Council, key stakeholders from the government, academe, private, and non-government sectors acknowledged that even if the Philippines is doing fine in terms of English competency, concerns on how much of a competitive advantage it still is for the country were raised. The stakeholders agreed that the country needs to step up its efforts in improving the teaching and learning of English, developing it as a vital skill of the workforce. This is an initiative that could potentially strengthen the Philippines' distinct advantage in this part of the world, particularly with the upcoming ASEAN economic integration.

Gaps and Recommendations 

Enhancing the teaching of English in the Philippines presents opportunities for the country in the area of tourism. 

"...We need to address the gap in qualified ESL teachers and the issues around ensuring the quality of ESL schools."

“To maintain the Philippines’ strength as a major ESL destination, we need to address the gap in qualified ESL teachers and the issues around ensuring the quality of ESL schools. This also includes exploring how we can extend incentives to ESL schools and teachers,” shares Renee Marie Reyes, the Chief of the ESL Market Development Group under the Department of Tourism (DOT). DOT is encouraging local ESL schools to offer structured tour packages to ESL learners, the majority of whom come from South Korea, China, Russia, and Japan, by incorporating English learning activities into the travel experience.

Other participants from the government sector underscored the need for an interagency government body to regulate and support ESL provision in the country in order to further capitalize on its economic potential. 

Representatives from the academe focused on teacher training and professional development, highlighting the need for skills in differentiated instruction, materials development, and knowledge sharing.

Dr. Rosario Alonzo, Dean of the University of the Philippines College of Education, says that the College ensures this by emphasizing to its students that English is a skill to be used for communication. Education students focus on learner-centred teaching, and are taught to ask learners to do meaningful tasks using English. 

“Our future teachers should ensure that English is a means of communication, rather than a set of facts to be learned,” says Dr. Alonzo.

“Our future teachers should ensure that English is a means of communication, rather than a set of facts to be learned,” says Dr. Alonzo. In the same way, the Department of Education focuses on the needs of learners and ensures that they learn the English language holistically, as specified under the K to 12 basic education framework.

There is also a greater imperative to further build on the English skills of the labour force, particularly of those in the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector. 

“The demand for BPO services from the Philippines requires more than 1.3 million employees by 2016, which means that 300,000 more new employees need to be hired by next year,” says Zoe Diaz de Rivera, the QCCI Manager and Master Trainer of the IT and Business Process Association of the Philippines (IBPAP).

Representatives from the private sector also suggested corporate social responsibility programs to support teacher development, particularly in English language proficiency in teaching other subjects. They also recommend collaboration between the government and the private sector to address teacher and student language proficiency in the outlying communities.

The international and development organizations recognize the same gaps and agree with the recommendations of the other sectors. In addition, they propose to have a platform for information sharing and communication among stakeholders to avoid duplicating initiatives. 

These statements were made amid the decline of the quality of English in the Philippines while jobs in various industries that require certain levels of English communication skills are left unfilled. Statistics from the IBPAP show that today, only eight to 10 individuals are hired for every 100 applicants in the IT-BPO sector.

Nicholas Thomas, Country Director of the British Council Philippines, says that developing a wider knowledge of the English language is one of the British Council’s founding purposes.

“Part of our work is to share best practice in the teaching and learning of English with partner countries all over the world. English has a distinctive place in the Philippine education system, and retaining high standards of English is critically important for the country’s economy and future development. We look forward to working with partners on more initiatives to support the teaching and learning of English here,” says Mr. Thomas.

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Philippines uses ESL to boost tourism

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The Philippines is aiming to attract 4.5 million international tourists this year and part of its tactic is to use the 500 English language teaching centres around the country to bring in students through the ESL Tour Program . At least 30,000 students a year are known to study in the country, a figure the government is keen to boost.

Launched in 2005, organisers say they have seen growth every year thanks to direct marking to their regional Asian neighbours. The promotional message combines claims of being just as good as Australia, the US or the UK for English language training and promising tropical getaways.

“The Philippines can compete with the US, UK or Australia as an ideal destination for studying the English language,” said Ruth Tizon, programme director. “Aside from its large English-speaking population, competent schools and faculty, the Philippines has a rich cultural heritage, offers diverse tourism attractions and activities, and warmth and hospitality not found anywhere else in the world.”

In addition to English training, the centres offer tour packages to ESL enrolees.  An ESL Tour Package may consist of a city tour, cultural tour, beach trip or island-hopping tour. English lessons are conducted while on the excursion.

English is widely spoken in the Phillipines with 93.5% of Filipinos able to speak and understand it well. It is the language of business and instruction in schools and universities.

In addition to English training, the centres offer tour packages to ESL enrolees

Student tourists who wish to partake in the programme, after securing their visas, must provide also proof of enrolment at one of the English language centres authorised by the Bureau of Immigration in order to receive their Special Study Permit (SSP) upon arrival in the Philippines.

In 2009, 22,962 SSPs were issued by the Bureau to foreign students who wish to study English in the Philippines. In 2010, this number had increased to 30, 715. According to organisers, the majority of students come from Korea, Japan, China and India.

Jabez International Education Center in Makati City has been an authorised provider since the programme was launched and has seen a 70% increase in its student population.

Head teacher Joel Torres says the school specifically targets Korean students because the owner are Koreans. “But it’s possible to develop the programme to other nationalities,” he said.

Depending on the season, Jabez organises beach trips to Batanagas or tours to heritage sites. “I think students find the Philippines friendlier. Aside from being a great place to visit we are more approachable,” said Torres. “It’s cheaper and our accent is easier to understand for Asian students. We have a more humanistic approach to teaching in the Philippines.”

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MT @thepienews: Philippines uses ESL to boost tourism http://t.co/LwqJjMGf #EducateYourself #EyeontheWorld

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The Philippines: Emerging From a Sea of Language Learning Destinations

Katharina schmidt.

  • September 9, 2021

article about english language tourism in the philippines

The rising demand for English teachers worldwide has provided Filipinos with much-needed employment opportunities and significantly affected other ESL (English as a Second Language) industry stakeholders. Large corporations profit from the Philippines’ competitive labor rates and the high global demand for English language instructors. BridgeUniverse spoke with two Filipino English language teachers (ELTs) and the managing director of an online English language platform to find out how they rate their experience teaching in the Philippines, online, and abroad, whether they believe their pay is fair and how the rising trend of hiring teachers at lower rates is affecting the industry as a whole.

The Rising Demand for Filipino English Teachers

A 2012 article by BBC Business, titled “The Philippines: The world’s budget English teacher,” points out two key reasons overseas students choose to learn English in the Southeast Asian island nation: the low cost and the teachers’ accent. These overseas students, primarily from Iran, Libya, Brazil and Russia, benefit from high-quality language instruction while paying only about one-third of the price of English language courses in the U.S. or Canada. In addition, the teachers’ accent makes the Philippines a popular alternative to Western countries. From 1898 to 1946, the country was under American occupation and, consequently, English became an official language. As a result, depending on education level, Filipinos today speak with an American accent.

English proficiency levels in the country also led to a boom in the country’s $26.7 billion Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry, a top contributor to the Philippine economy, employing roughly 1.3 million people in 2019. The BPO industry involves foreign corporations that outsource jobs and even entire departments, including accounting, customer service or marketing to the Philippines, primarily for the low local labor rates.

article about english language tourism in the philippines

Due to the Philippines’ low average salaries across all job sectors, a significant number of its citizens move abroad for job opportunities with higher pay rates than they could earn at home. According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, about 2.2 million Filipinos worked abroad in 2019. These Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) work primarily in elementary occupations as service and sales workers and as ​​plant and machine operators and assemblers. Many OFWs leave their families, including their children, behind and are separated from them for many years. In contrast, Filipinos who choose to venture into English language teaching can opt to teach online and stay at home.

Before China’s recent education crackdown, Chinese ESL company Acadsoc boldly promoted its salaries to prospective English teachers. “Teach more, earn more! Earn as much as 60,000 Php/month” (which is roughly $1,200 per month), the homepage of the website reads. In a country where, according to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the average yearly family income in 2018 was equivalent to $6,280 (about $515 per month), a stay-at-home job to teach English online promising more than twice the national average income is enticing.

Becoming an ELT in the Philippines 

article about english language tourism in the philippines

“I am quite proactive and regularly attend webinars, conferences and sign up to do online courses to always keep myself updated on what’s new in the ELT field.”

The process of starting a career as an ELT in the Philippines is straightforward. It requires searching the internet for an opening at one of the many language schools, sending in an application, completing the requirements, being interviewed and, once hired, obtaining a certification. Sometimes, these certifications, including TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) or TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language), can be earned while already working. For example, Jannelle Ruiz Gerong, a Filipino ELT based in the Philippines, had that opportunity: “The previous company I worked for offered us TESOL training, and I was able to finish the course while working.” When asked about English teaching opportunities in the country, Gerong says there is a steady, high demand. She explains, “tons of companies post job advertisements online. We can either submit our resumes online or in person. They hold interviews and tests before recruiting teachers. Some teachers are being trained for one month or less.” Gerong graduated from university in a different field, but — inspired by an acquaintance who worked as an ELT — eventually chose to shift careers and teach English. She was always interested in exploring English language teaching and applied to different companies to dip her toes into the industry as a fresh graduate. Today, she is TESOL-certified and has been an ELT for over three years, currently working for a small company in the Philippines. 

A Filipino ELT living and working abroad is Karen Gacusan Deslorieux. She is a self-employed ELT now based in France. Deslorieux works in language schools and with private clients, teaching classes such as general English, English for tourism or marketing, and test preparation (e.g., for IELTS and Cambridge exams). For the past 12 years, she has been working in education, starting as a teacher’s assistant at the International School Manila and subsequently moving to Jakarta, Indonesia to work as a preschool teacher at another international school.

Upon returning to the Philippines, she married and, together with her husband, decided to move to France. At the time, her husband suggested she specialize in English teaching rather than early education for better employment opportunities in France. She says the decision to shift fields was worth it: “I landed my first job as an English teacher after six months of arriving in France. I am happy with the transition I have made in my career. I mostly work with French children ages 1 to 6. In a way, it’s like working with preschool-age children; the only difference is that I don’t have to teach all the subjects but just concentrate on teaching them English.”

article about english language tourism in the philippines

Carlo C. Laroco is the head of BCM (Byung-Chul Min) Manila which is an online teaching and training center, primarily servicing students in Korea and Japan. When asked about whether continuing education for ELTs is provided at his school, Laroco explains that BCM is highly committed to the quality of the classes they provide to their students, which largely depends on the skills and wellbeing of their teachers. He adds, “For the people that we hire in our organization, it is a partnership. In fact, we conduct full-skill training, which includes communication, class handling, and soft skills. On top of that, we execute continuous developmental programs. We understand that the skill development of our teachers is imperative to achieve global success.”

Most English language centers in the Philippines, however, choose to train new hires for one month before they start to work, and then leave continuing education largely up to the teachers. Manila-based Nicolo Luccini began to teach English in China in 2009 and, in 2016, set up LearnTalk , an online English tutorial platform with mostly Filipino teachers. The marketplace model at LearnTalk provides teachers with initial training; however, continuing education and further professional development are left to the teachers independently. Deslorieux concurs, adding that continuing professional development (CPD) depends on each teacher individually. “I am quite proactive and regularly attend webinars, conferences and sign up to do online courses to always keep myself updated on what’s new in the ELT field.”  Deslorieux adds that while TESOL and TEFL certifications are pretty standard in Asia, she noticed, after moving to Europe, that the CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) was more widely recognized in European schools. 

Teaching Online vs. Abroad 

“When I was teaching English online back in the Philippines, I was paid around $5 per hour. In France, I get to charge more and base it on what the market rate is. For my services I charge from around 20-40 euros per hour. Needless to say, I prefer working in France because I am compensated fairly. Whereas in the Philippines, and working online from there, I need to be considered a native English teacher to earn at least $20 per hour.”

Up until recently, Chinese firms heavily recruited Filipino teachers for English online instruction, such as Beijing-based ESL giant, 51Talk, which in June of 2020 was still in search of 30,000 Filipino ELTs to hire — in addition to its existing 20,000 Filipino teachers — to alleviate the shortage of 500,000 foreign English language teachers in China. Luccini sees a clear benefit for Filipinos to teach English online rather than moving abroad to teach English in other countries: “It’s great because it keeps families intact. It’s more efficient and flexible.”

To Deslorieux, however, the major difference between teaching English online and moving to another country is the pay rate. She says, “When I was teaching English online back in the Philippines, I was paid around $5 per hour. In France, I get to charge more and base it on what the market rate is. For my services, I charge from around 20-40 euros per hour. Needless to say, I prefer working in France because I am compensated fairly. Whereas in the Philippines, and working online from there, I need to be considered a native English teacher to earn at least $20 per hour.” Gerong noticed another advantage of working abroad vs. online. “In my opinion, one advantage ELTs abroad have is that they have more control over the students and their classes,” she says. “Teaching English online can be quite difficult, especially with primary school students.” Aware that Filipino ELTs earn less than their Western counterparts while teaching online or in the Philippines, she adds, “another difference for me would be the salary.”

Wage Gaps 

In the Bangkok Post article “Right qualifications, wrong colour skin ,” Filipino ELT Lyndsay Cabildo recounts her surprise at the wage gaps for English teachers in Thailand. When she moved to Thailand in 2012, she was offered 15,000 baht (about $460) to work as a part-time English teacher in various schools around the country. However, for a white European teacher from a non-English speaking country, that price would be doubled, to 30,000 baht. She says, “Our salary was dictated by our skin color and not our ability to deliver or the credentials we worked so hard for.” The article goes on to explain that her experience is common for thousands of Filipinos seeking work in Thailand who often face discrimination based on race.  

Due to the wage gaps Deslorieux experienced while teaching online from the Philippines, she prefers to work in France. In the Philippines, she was paid one-fourth of what her Western coworkers made for being considered a non-native English-speaking teacher (NNEST). “Here in France, I earn above minimum wage. Minimum wage in France is around 1,540 euros per month. I know that my Western counterparts are paid the same rate as me. This is what I really like about working in France — there is equality! I am paid not based on my passport but on my experience, degree, certifications and competencies.”

Citizenship and Race

“My students and employers in Indonesia didn’t treat me differently because I was not Western.”

The issues of native speakerism and race discrimination are widely debated in the ESL sphere worldwide, yet Deslorieux says she has only had a few related experiences. She says, “I think my citizenship, race and class didn’t matter with the jobs that I’ve had, except when it was online work. When I applied for online jobs, some companies declined me because I was not from a country considered as native-English-speaking.” While working as a preschool teacher in Indonesia, Deslorieux felt she was treated well by employers and students. “My students and employers in Indonesia didn’t treat me differently because I was not Western. I think that generally, Filipino teachers are regarded highly in Indonesia. Employers and the families we work with respect and admire our work ethic and dedication to our jobs, so it is prevalent to find many Filipino teachers employed in international schools in Indonesia.” When asked, Gerong says she also found that students generally gave Filipino ELTs good reviews. “Some of my previous Asian students told me they relate more to their Filipino teachers and that they like the way we speak and enunciate words,” she recounts.  

“Racism is real. Yes, we all know this fact. Rarely does the pay level of a Filipino come close to that of a native speaker.”

In the article “Discrimination against Filipinos,” an Australian ELT based in Thailand shares a contrasting story, describing his observations of Filipino coworkers and their experience of working in Thailand. He writes, “Racism is real. Yes, we all know this fact. Rarely does the pay level of a Filipino come close to that of a native speaker,” noting that Filipinos are the lowest-paid English teachers in the school aside from the English-teaching Thai staff. The article “They Are ‘Asians Just Like Us’: Filipino Teachers, Colonial Aesthetics and English Language Education in Thailand” also examines the discrimination Filipino ELTs working in Thailand face. It describes how they “find themselves in a relatively disadvantaged position compared to their white, English-speaking coworkers,” being paid about half of what their native English-speaking (NEST) coworkers make and “enjoying less favorable housing arrangements and working conditions.” The article goes on to explain that the treatment of Filipinos as “second-class, English-speaking teachers” in some Thai schools is embedded in the colonial view toward the English language — as English is perceived to be interconnected with whiteness, white NESTs are therefore considered ideal English teachers, while non-white teachers face discrimination. According to the article, racial background is favored over English proficiency, again pointing to the issue of native speakerism. Both articles mention that Filipino teachers in Thailand were primarily female and expected to wear uniforms identical to those of Thai staff, while native speakers enjoyed a separate dress code. 

The Future for Filipino ELTs

article about english language tourism in the philippines

While China may not currently be an option for Filipino ELTs seeking to work abroad, many other countries are viable alternatives.

On July 24, 2021, Chinese state media announced a new policy that considers companies making a profit from after-school tuition services for school-age children illegal. Although mainly aimed at academic test-preparation schools, the new policy also covers language schools and online providers. In addition, providers are banned from being listed on any stock market and from teaching on weekends and during public or school holidays.

While China may not currently be an option for Filipino ELTs seeking to work abroad, many other countries are viable alternatives. In an April 2020 article , Philippine higher learning institute Enderun published a list of recommended countries to teach English abroad for Filipino ESL teachers. Topping the list were Japan and the United Arab Emirates, followed by Thailand and Spain.

Working abroad is one of Gerong’s plans for the future. “I enjoy being an ELT and am planning on obtaining more English-teaching certificates,” she says. “I would also like to continue teaching English abroad.” Already based abroad, Deslorieux says her ESL teaching future entails obtaining more certifications and focusing on adult English and niche teaching. “Since I am in France, I am thinking of specializing in teaching English to professionals in the wine, spirits and cheese industry,” she explains.

English language teaching has undoubtedly provided safe careers and stable incomes for thousands of Filipinos in the country and abroad for many years. Still, there seems to be room for improvement in the industry. “I hope Filipino teachers can get better pay, especially the ones working online,” Deslorieux says. She continues: “As for the teachers working abroad, it is important to know what the market rate is of the country where you are working. We should not undervalue ourselves just because of our nationality. If we have the experience and the competence, we owe it to ourselves to get decent pay.” Luccini adds, “It would be nice if some markets were less concerned with their teachers’ ethnicity and more concerned with the quality of their instruction. Unfortunately, some markets view ethnicity as a signal of ‘quality’ education, which is objectively incorrect. I hope this changes one day.”

Read about Filipina teacher Shella’s experience teaching abroad at an international school in Taiwan.

article about english language tourism in the philippines

Katharina is a writer and journalist from Germany. She obtained her undergraduate business degree in the U.S. and worked in various fields before dedicating herself to writing full-time. She has lived in five countries and is currently based in Manila, Philippines. She enjoys sharing her love for different cultures, language learning, and world travel.

Tourism in the Philippines Through the Gaze of Communities, Hosts and Guests

  • First Online: 07 October 2022

Cite this chapter

article about english language tourism in the philippines

  • Richard S. Aquino 5 &
  • Brooke A. Porter 6 , 7  

Part of the book series: Perspectives on Asian Tourism ((PAT))

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This introductory chapter presents an overview of Filipino culture and tourism in the contemporary Filipino society. This chapter situates the diversity of Filipino culture, complexity of the Filipino society, and the role of tourism in host communities in the Philippines. The chapter presents the theming of the edited book, mainly drawn from the concepts of the host gaze, tourist gaze, and researcher’s gaze. Related studies about tourism and tourists in the Philippines are presented as the parts of the book are introduced. The chapter ends by outlining the contents of the book.

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As of May 2020, according to the Philippine Statistics Authority ( 2021 ).

“Culture is seen as the software of society, so that members of society are wired to share and communicate in accepted ways” (Ooi, 2019 , p. 15).

From the co-editor’s (Brooke Porter) cultural outsider perspective, the pride of place is apparent in the contributions. The authors positive outlooks on the potential for the tourism sector are evident, even if not directly stated.

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Aquino, R.S., Porter, B.A. (2022). Tourism in the Philippines Through the Gaze of Communities, Hosts and Guests. In: Aquino, R.S., Porter, B.A. (eds) Tourism in the Philippines. Perspectives on Asian Tourism. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4013-2_1

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article about english language tourism in the philippines

DOT to hold 2-day conference on English as Second Language (ESL)

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The Department of Tourism (DOT) strengthens its promotion of the country through the 2nd Hybrid Philippine Education Tourism Conference (PETC) happening from January 26-27, 2022 in Clark, Pampanga.

Led by the DOT through its Office of Product and Market Development (OPMD), the two-day conference aims to further develop English as Second Language (ESL) which is considered as the country’s key education tourism product being promoted by OPMD since 2013.

“Among the biggest challenges we face today is how to effectively provide students with their learning requirements. Because of the pandemic, teachers, students, and schools had to shift quickly to digital forms of instruction. Despite this difficult educational environment, we have to continue equipping our students with the necessary skills to succeed in an unpredictable world, which requires innovation and a strong support network. As such, the Department of Tourism will continue to conduct activities that will further the growth of the education tourism industry and assist our stakeholders,” said Tourism Secretary Berna Romulo-Puyat, who is set to open the event on January 26.

Puyat also shared that prior to the pandemic, the Philippines was considered as the world’s fifth largest ESL provider.

To enhance the country’s position not only as an ESL hub but also as a multi-faceted education tourism destination, the PETC will showcase to both local and foreign students short-term online and offline education tourism programs that are being offered by institutions in the Philippines in the new normal.

The event will also invite local and foreign education tourism authorities to share their expertise on marketing strategies that will help local institutions make their offerings more appealing to foreign students. Invited experts will tackle topics that are relevant to stakeholders such as international mobility, latest education requirements for foreign students, and best practices of neighboring countries that local institutions can adopt to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic.

Another major component of the PETC will be the virtual business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) networking activities slated on January 28, which aim to provide opportunities for stakeholders and key players to renew or forge new partnerships and exchange ideas and education trends.

The first-ever PETC was first organized by the DOT in July 2019 at the Jpark Island Resort & Waterpark in Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu. The two-day event was attended by over 350 participants from ESL schools, colleges, universities, associations, and government agencies.

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Tourism chief affirms DOT’s support to PH Dev’t Plan 2023-2028

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Chinese tourists receive warm welcome from PHL; DOT foresees swifter tourism recovery with Chinese outbound group tour

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PHL, CHINA ink tourism implementation deal

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PHL breaches 2.6M arrivals for 2022; DOT chief bullish of 2023 projections

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DOT lands on Top 3 Highest Approval Rating among Government Agencies; bares targets for 2023

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DOT, DICT ink deal for improvement of connectivity in tourist destinations, digitalization of services

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DOT, DMW launch newest incentivized tourism promotions campaign

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DOT, TIEZA launch 7th Tourist Rest Area in Pagudpud’s Saud Beach

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Tourist Rest Area to rise in Bohol

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Luzon’s First DOT Tourist Rest Area to Rise In Baguio City

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DOT strengthens PHL-Saudi Arabia tourism relations, engages industry key players

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Statement of Tourism Secretary Christina Garcia Frasco on the Launch of the e-Travel System

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Filipino hospitality, Philippine sustainable tourism highlighted at WTTC Global Summit Saudi Arabia

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Frasco welcomes Uzakrota World’s Leading Country Award, PHL destinations’ citations

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Frasco eyes more urban parks in the Philippines

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DOT’s Frasco is among best-performing cabinet officials- RPMD Survey

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Frasco hails first-ever North Luzon Travel Fair as critical to revitalizing tourism; reiterates the Philippines’ readiness for visitors

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DOT welcomes long holidays for 2023; PBBM signing of Proclamation No. 90 important stimulus to PHL domestic tourism in 2023: DOT chief

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PHL visitor arrivals reach 2M; tourism revenue hit 100B – DOT Chief

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Philippines hailed as World’s Leading Dive and Beach Destinations

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PHL Tourism Chief initiates tourism cooperation talks with Italian Tourism Minister

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Palawan cited “Most Desirable Island” in 21st Wanderlust Travel Award

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Outlook for Philippine tourism positive – tourism chief

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DOT launches 1st North Luzon Travel Fair

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Tourism chief to lead PHL contingent to WTM, brings listening tours to FILCOM in UK

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PBBM oks easing of stringent travel restrictions

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PHITEX 2022 yields record high 173M sales leads

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One Health Pass replaced with PHL’s ‘simpler’ eARRIVAL CARD system

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Philippine Experience Caravans to roll out 2023 – Frasco

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DOT relaunches Philippine Tourism Awards

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DOT exceeds 2022 target arrivals; PBBM rallies support for tourism as admin’s priority sector

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Siargao, a priority for Tourism Development — Frasco

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STATEMENT OF TOURISM SECRETARY CHRISTINA GARCIA FRASCO

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DOT bares tourism wins under PBBM’s first 100 days

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Tourist Rest Areas for PHL’s top destination – Cebu

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Tourist Rest Areas launched in Mindanao

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FY 2023 DOT budget submitted to plenary; Senators press for higher tourism budget

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DOT celebrates Philippines’ back to back wins at Conde Naste Traveler Readers’ Choice Awards; Boracay claims spot as top island in Asia anew

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Frasco secures CA nod as Tourism Chief

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DOT receives HOR nod for P3.573 B budget for 2023

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First ever DOT-DOLE nat’l tourism job fair opens

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Tourism Chief tackles plans to revive industry, entices foreign investors in New York briefing

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PBBM pronouncements at UN meet an “excellent representation” of PHL – Secretary Frasco

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DOT-DOLE 1st Philippine Tourism Job Fair pre-registration now open, more than 7k jobs available to tourism job seekers- Sec. Frasco

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STATEMENT OF TOURISM SECRETARY CHRISTINA GARCIA FRASCO ON THE LIFTING OF OUTDOOR MASK MANDATE IN THE PHILIPPINES

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DOT muling pinarangalan ng Selyo ng Kahusayan sa Serbisyo Publiko 2022

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DOT Chief welcomes IATF recommendation to make masking optional when outdoors

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Phl scores back to back win in WTA Asia; Intramuros hailed as Asia’s Leading Tourist Attraction of 2022

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Frasco lays out DOT plans and programs for industry recovery; lawmakers bat for higher DOT budget

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More than 1,500 tourism jobs to be offered in joint DOT-DOLE job fair

Dot to ink tourism job fair program – trabaho, turismo, asenso with dole; domestic, international jobs to be available to tourism job hunters.

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Thailand to offer tourism job opportunities to Filipinos– Frasco

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PHL tourism chief pushes for increased connectivity, interoperability of vax certs, equalization of opportunities, and sustainability in APEC tourism ministers’ meet

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Philippines strengthens tourism ties with Thailand

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DOT TRAINS BOHOL VENDORS ON FILIPINO BRAND OF SERVICE EXCELLENCE

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20 intl, local dive and marine experts take centerstage at PHIDEX 2022

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Measures in place to ensure safe travel to PHL – Tourism Chief

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FRASCO OPTIMISTIC OF PH TOURISM RESURGENCE, LAUDS CEBU TOURISM SUCCESS

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Frasco eyes visitor-friendly, “distinctly Filipino” air, seaports in PHL

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DOT celebrates Philippine Accessible Disability Services, Inc. (PADS) Dragon Boat Team historic four gold medal haul

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DOT to facilitate interagency effort to strengthen Filipino Brand of Service

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DOT to coordinate on quake-hit tourist destinations, heritage sites

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PBBM cites tourism as top-priority; orders infra development, enhancement of Filipino brand

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DOT chief takes “Listening Tours” to Luzon

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DOT Chief affirms support to National Museum of the Philippines; proposes inclusion of museums in tourism circuits

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Boracay, Palawan and Cebu hailed World’s Best Islands; DOT celebrates back-to-back accolades for PHL destinations

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Marcos push for Tourism Infra strengthens industry, raises PHL global position – DOT Chief

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DOT lauds Boracay’s inclusion in TIME’s 50 World’s Greatest Places of 2022

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DOT lauds Cebu-based group win in int’l dance competition

Statement of tourism secretary christina garcia frasco on banaue.

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Tourism Chief Frasco kicks off listening tours in VisMin, encourages officials to reach out to LGUs, stakeholders

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Tourism chief Frasco to go on ‘listening tours’ starting this week

Dot reports increase in domestic tourism in 2021.

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Incoming tourism chief receives warm welcome from employees, vows to bring “LGU perspective” to DOT

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DOT’s Philippine International Dive Expo (PHIDEX) returns to Manila next month

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First Davao Dive Expo slated on June 24

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DOT touts ‘future farms’ as new and sustainable tourist attractions

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DOT pitches PHL as ideal retirement destination in Japan Expo

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DOT positions New Clark City as premier tourism investment hub

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PH’s significant recovery in travel and tourism hot topic in Routes Asia 2022

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DOT’s KAIN NA! takes foodies to a multi-sensory adventure

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DOT Presents “Escape: Stories from the Road” Podcast

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Second (2nd) Online Master TESOL Certification Course

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DOT, MMC Foundation partnership brings ER bikes to three Metro Manila tourist sites

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DOT spotlights PWDs and women in tourism with new “It’s More Fun for All” campaign

Media release from the department of tourism.

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PHL scraps COVID pre-departure test for fully vaccinated, boostered tourists

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DENR, DOT and DILG unveil Year of Protected Areas (YoPA) Campaign marking 90th anniversary of Protected Area establishment in the Philippines

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Department of Tourism and Mickey Go Philippines introduce Pinoy Mickey Funko Pops

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DOT launches “Keep the Fun Going” sustainable tourism campaign with gamified challenges

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DOT reminds AEs on proper flag etiquette

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DOT 49th Anniversary speech of the Tourism Secretary

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DOT pushes for 100% vaccination of active tourism workers

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DOT calls for lowering of testing price cap, certification of more saliva test facilities

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PHL may be next filming location as Tourism Summit brings in Hollywood execs

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WTTC Investment Tour Highlights Viable Opportunities in Clark, Central Luzon

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WTTC lauds PH successful hosting of Int’l tourism Summit

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Closing and Congratulatory Message during the Closing Ceremony of the 21st WTTC Global Summit of the DOT Secretary

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WTTC: ‘Astonishing Recovery’ for Philippines’ tourism sector

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World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) Exhibition Booths

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WTTC Opening Ceremony Welcome Remarks of the DOT Secretary

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WTTC bullish on PH tourism recovery amid Covid-19 pandemic

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PHL Foreign tourist arrivals breach 200k mark – DOT Chief

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DOT, partner agencies celebrate Filipino Food Month

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WTTC announces speakers for its 21st Global Summit in the Philippines

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DOT seeks return of Korean tourists, PH’s top market

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DOT inks partnership with PNP, PDEA to beef up security in tourist destinations

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DOT Launches Digital Travel Magazine “7641”

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PHL says “All systems go for full reopening on April 1”; Removes EED as entry requirement

Phl logs more than 100,000 visitor arrivals since feb. 10 reopening.

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DOT meets with Japanese tourism execs to boost inbound tourism arrivals

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Statement of the DOT on hotel rooms occupancy guidelines

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PH opens doors to all foreign tourists with easing of arrival requirements starting April 1

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Travel to PHL is “easier”, more fun – Puyat

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DOT Launches “Sounds More Fun in the Philippines” Playlist on Spotify

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DOT hopeful on higher tourism growth with downgrading of NCR, 38 areas to Alert Level 1

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Intramuros visitors up by 132% in February

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DOT bares higher tourist influx since reopening

Dot welcomes iatf approval to accept the national vaxcert of 12 additional countries.

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PH receives 9,283 inbound tourists; DOT upbeat on higher arrivals in months ahead

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Puyat: Walk-in booster shots available for Boracay visitors

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All systems go for PHL reopening for international travel- Puyat

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Kids’ vaccination to make family travels safe, more fun

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DOT lists requirements and protocols for arriving foreign leisure guests

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Save the date for the World Travel & Tourism Council Global Summit in the Philippines

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DOT: PH to accept fully-vaxxed tourists from visa-free countries starting Feb. 10

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DOT supports ‘Pharmacy and Drive-thru Vaccination Sites’ rollout in Baguio City

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DOT Launches “ASMR Experience the Philippines” Project

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PH cities, hotels bag ASEAN tourism awards

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Booster shots rolled out for fully vaxxed tourism workers; 50% of NCR hotel staff already “boosted”

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DOT trains over 30,000 tourism professionals amid pandemic

Dot welcomes eased travel movement between gcq and mgcq areas for tourism revival, hotel in ‘poblacion girl” fiasco suspended, fined, intramuros gives vulnerable population a breathing space, dot launches website with exclusive travel deals for balikbayans.

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Anilao Underwater Shootout stages a successful comeback

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DOT’s KAIN NA! makes a comeback in Tagaytay

Dot earns unwto citation for have a safe trip, pinas ad.

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Brgy. Bojo in Aloguinsan, Cebu bags UNWTO best tourism village award

More than 95% of tourism workers in dive establishments already vaccinated against covid-19: dot.

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DOT: PHL to welcome Int’l tourists soon

Dot welcomes shortened quarantine days for balikbayans, dot asks lgus to simplify entry requirements in tourist spots, miceconnect 2021 positions boracay as asia’s premier bleisure destination, dot releases latest list of domestic destinations waiving rt-pcr tests for fully vaxxed visitors, dot grants incentives to fully vaccinated individuals visiting intramuros.

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Statement of the DOT on waiving RT-PCR requirement to Boracay for fully vaxxed tourists

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Anilao underwater ‘shootout’ is back

Puyat, dot execs pitch ph tourism in japan travel mart, dot welcomes eased restrictions in mm under alert level 2, free swab tests for domestic tourists starting nov. 1, dot lists destinations without testing requirement, with projected 100% inoculation rate by next month, boracay will soon waive rt-pcr testing for fully vaxxed visitors.

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Domestic Travel Welcome-Back: DOT, TPB launch ‘It’s More Fun with You’ ad and ‘Have a Safe Trip, Pinas’ Viber Stickers

22 divers pass dot guide training in anilao.

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PH cited Asia’s top beach and dive destination anew in 2021 World Travel Awards

Dot bullish on camiguin’s reopening, boosts covid-19 vax drive, dot clarifies travel guidelines for ncr residents under alert level 4, alert level 3, good for tourism jobs and businesses as holidays near – puyat, 2nd tourism & technology forum: readying for a different future.

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DOT vaccination drive for tourism workers continues in Pampanga

Dot welcomes easing of age restrictions for interzonal travel, less quarantine days for travelers an ‘encouraging development’ for tourism industry – puyat.

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Vaccination of Rizal tourism workers crucial to industry’s recovery — DOT

Dot welcomes siargao, palawan and boracay win in int’l travel mag awards, over 43k safety seals issued as more businesses apply, dot backs call to shorten quarantine of fully vaxxed travelers, dot calls for cooperation to ensure success of expanded operational capacity of restaurants in ncr.

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DOT lauds Samar LGU vax drive for tourism workers

Message of secretary berna romulo-puyat on the celebration of world tourism day, dot ensures compliance of accredited hotels, resorts to new iatf alert level system guidelines.

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Cebu vax drive for tourism workers gains traction with more than 50% inoculated

Puyat bares phl hosting of international tourism conference in march 2022.

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DOT and TikTok launch #GandaMoPinas Campaign as local borders reopen

Dot invites esl teachers to free online master tesol certification course.

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DOT launches “More Fun Awaits” global campaign to showcase travel preps

Statement of the department of tourism (dot), statement of the department of tourism on the inclusion of palawan in t+l’s top islands in asia, world list, more than 50% of country’s tourism workers vaccinated against covid-19 – dot chief, intramuros site visit of dot secretary berna romulo-puyat.

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Intramuros sites and Rizal Park to reopen September 16

Philippines boosts participation in expo 2020 dubai, highlights pinoy food, local tourism businesses receive dot, tpb philcare kits.

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DOT, partner agencies drive up promotion of Filipino food experience

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More than 7.5k tourism workers in Baguio have received Covid vax – Tourism Chief

Dot, tpb distribute p19m worth of materials to promote safety protocols.

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DOT, NTF bring vaccination rollout for tourism workers in Siargao Island

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DOT: 95% of tourism workers in NCR vaxxed vs Covid-19

Sustainability is key to tourism industry’s recovery — puyat, dot lauds private sector for vaccine rollout in el nido.

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PHITEX 2021: Beyond Business slated for September 19-23

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Puyat leads vaccination drive for Pampanga tourism workers

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More than 75% of Bohol tourism workers eyed for inoculation with second vaccine roll-out

More than 70% of tourism frontliners in metro manila vaccinated vs covid-19 — puyat.

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DOT and TPB SUCCESSFULLY STAGED FIRST-EVER HYBRID EDITION OF THE REGIONAL TRAVEL FAIR

Dot, bpos to hold job fair, statement of the department of tourism.

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DOT targets increased inoculation of tourism workers in more destinations

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Puyat: More vaccines coming for Palawan tourism workers

Dot statement on nesthy petecio’s silver medal finish in the tokyo 2020 olympics, rizal park drive-thru vax site opens; puyat hails manila’s anti-covid initiative, dot gets highest coa rating for 2nd straight year, statement of the department of tourism on the passing of heritage and cultural tourism advocate mr. ramon hofileña, statement of the department of tourism (dot) on the heightened community quarantine level implementations in ncr, more tourism workers in boracay to receive covid-19 jabs – dot, dot reiterates call for safe travel amid stricter quarantine measure, dot reminds hotels, resorts that room sharing for quarantined families is allowed, dot celebrates siargao inclusion in time magazine as one of the world’s greatest places of 2021, dot launches halal food tourism, dot backs gov’t infra program to boost tourism, dot backs iloilo bid for ‘creative city of gastronomy’ recognition from unesco, statement of the department of tourism on iatf decision allowing children five years old and above, and fully vaccinated seniors to visit outdoor areas, dot partners with viber to promote kain na foodfest, dot: 3,000 boracay tourism workers to receive covid vax, dot, tpb continues to support lgus with digital transformation projects, dot teams up with scarlet belo and cartoon network to take safe trips, dot statement on the activities of the taal volcano, bakuna by the sea: dot hails davao’s innovative approach to travel, hospitality workers, dot, tpb to roll out 2nd phase of rt-pcr financial subsidy program through pcmc, dot unveils region 1 tourism recovery plan, statement of the department of tourism on the drop of tourism contribution to gdp, dot to co-stage virtual fête de la musique june 18-21, more ncr tourism workers receive support through dot-dole program, travel for tourists of all ages from ncr plus to boracay, other mgcq areas extended to june 30, dot eyes inoculation of 5,000 bohol tourism workers, museums in ncr plus to reopen on limited capacity – dot, dot turns food tourism to high heat with 2021 kain na, terms for tourism business loans eased, dot bares tourism recovery plans for bulacan, dot and tiktok launch #sarapmagingpinoy campaign to promote local food tourism, dot launches five-year plan to develop tourism professionals, dot celebrates world environment month, highlights responsible marine wildlife interactions, statement of the department of tourism (dot) on the rt-pcr requirement for leisure travelers under iatf-eid resolution 118a, statement of the dot on iatf-eid resolution 118a, more than 16k bulacan tourism workers get dot-dole cash aid, dot orders stricter monitoring of staycation hotels and aes in gcq areas following new iatf guidelines, dot lauds inclusion of frontline tourism workers in a1 priority group, dot hosts pata summit for first hybrid mice event in 2021, over 1,400 golf workers in metro manila get dot-dole cash aid.

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Central Luzon to Showcase ‘Flavors of Pampanga’, readies tourists for gastronomic experience

Dot lauds ph hotels recognized with the 2021 tripadvisor awards, 3,390 tourism workers in marinduque approved to receive p16.95m dot-dole cash aid, puyat bares tourism recovery plans for marinduque, dot proposes ‘green lane’ for fully vaccinated travelers, dot hails expansion of priority vaccination to a4 cluster, including tourism frontliners, 5,986 staycation rooms open for guests from ncr plus, intramuros to open fort santiago, baluarte de san diego to visitors may 17, dot statement on the proposed vaccination center in nayong pilipino, dot welcomes iatf decision to ease travel in ncr plus, 221m cash aid approved for 44k tourism workers in western visayas, statement of the department of tourism (dot) on the collected garbage from the waters of samal island, davao del norte, statement of the department of tourism (dot) on the reported violations of a hotel in davao city, dot to host hybrid pata annual event for adventure travel, p1.5m cash aid approved for 295 intramuros tourism workers, updates on the vaccination of tourism workers, labor day vax for tourism workers, more than 400k displaced tourism workers get dot-dole cash aid, philippine tourism and mice industry to bounce back with the hosting of wttc global summit, dot, manila lgu ink mobile hospital deal, dot-accredited establishment staysafe.ph-users, eligible for safety seal certification, dot grants the wttc safe travels stamp to 33 more hotels nationwide, dot welcomes proposals to convert tourism sites to temporary medical facilities, dot lauds repurposed hotels, calls for ‘bayanihan’ vs covid, dot approves use of burnham green and quirino grandstand in rizal park for temporary mobile hospital and drive-thru vaccination site, dot celebrates saud beach inclusion in the 25 most beautiful beaches in the world list of travel and leisure, 67k displaced tourism workers of ncr+ receive dot-dole cash aid, statement of the department of tourism on the vaccination facility in nayong pilipino property, statement of the department of tourism regarding the alleged birthday “super spreader” event in boracay, dot eyes adoption of covid-19 digital travel pass, dot statement on ecq extension in ncr plus, phl, dot nominated at asia edition of 2021 world travel awards, dot pushes for inclusion of other tourism workers in priority group a4, strict new guidelines set for hotels under ecq; lenten ‘staycations’ within ncr plus suspended, dot statement on ecq for ncr+ areas, dot statement on holy week, rizal park and paco park adjust visiting hours, remain open for physical exercise, dot statement on biatf measures for boracay, tpb philippines spearheads tourism and technology forum (ttf), dot statement on coron tourist with falsified travel documents, dot supports rizal tourism circuit on food, faith, art, adventure and nature, the ‘fun’ continues: philippines joins digital itb berlin, dot to spur domestic tourism in rizal, dot’s stdp program to enhance resiliency of phl destinations – puyat, dot sustains online presence with ‘wake up in ph’ campaign and safety travel advisories, dot greenlights partial operations of hotel restaurants on june 15, dot eyes tourism recovery as more destinations may reopen, domestic travel to drive recovery of tourism industry, says survey, dot hails revival of tourist cops, tourism will recover well, dot chief vows, dot celebrates hidden beach, palawan’s inclusion in cnt’s best beaches in the world, tourism industry hikes share in gdp to 13%; puyat sees strong recovery from pandemic, dot pushes stringent guidelines for stakeholders across the nation, biatf denounces travelers’ breach of entry protocol to boracay, dot lauds partnership model for safe and sustainable tourism in boracay, dot issues guidelines on tourist land transport services, iatf–eid resolution reiterates ‘dot certificate of authority’ as requisite to operate, dot issues protocols on restaurant operations under the new normal, dot welcomes ph ‘rising stars in travel’ citation by forbes.com, dot, dti to roll out health and safety guidelines, digital solutions for restaurants, dot, attached agencies promote digital tourism, tourism chief reminds hotels, resorts: no dot certificate, no business operations during mgcq, dot assists 36,000 tourists during covid-19 crisis, dot webinar tackles digital as the new normal, dot welcomes the resumption of tourism operations in areas under mgcq, trust and health safety key to phl tourism recovery – dot chief, puyat on reopening tourism: ‘do it slowly but surely’, dot brings home 84 tourists stranded in eastern visayas, dot supports coron’s sustainable tourism development to bounce back, dot welcomes puerto princesa reopening to domestic tourists, dot urges for more wttc safe travels stamp applications, boracay’s white beach, el nido’s nacpan beach among tripadvisor’s top beaches in asia, dot statement on uniform travel protocols, dot supports the safe reopening of negros oriental, puyat affirms support for siquijor’s reopening, dot statement on el nido’s swift action against tourists with false covid test records, dot supports dilg’s streamlining of travel requirements, dot assists 98 stranded tourists in western mindanao, dot assists 246 tourists stranded in bicol, dot response team assists 1004 tourists stranded in caraga region, statement of tourism secretary bernadette romulo-puyat, dot8 springs stranded tourists, total assisted travelers now at 11,000, dot assists stranded tourists in central luzon, dot response teams assist over 10,000 travelers, dot announces the guidelines on hotels and other accommodation establishments during the enhanced community quarantine, dot chief: innovation to spur food tourism in new normal, dot webinar tackles heritage site conservation and use amid pandemic, dot banners “filipino brand of service”; assists over 35,000 tourists amid pandemic, dot to jumpstart domestic tourism under stricter protocols with iatf and lgus, dot partners with wttc to share experts’ tourism outlook, recovery plans, dot regulates hotel food deliveries, dot: tourism industry up to tough challenges on path to recovery, more than 155,000 tourism sector workers receive first tranche of dof wage subsidy program, dot mounts sweeper flights; brings home 1000 stranded domestic tourists, dot webinar tackles recovery, future of phl’s m.i.c.e., statement of the department of tourism (dot) on the iatf–eid authorization to mount sweeper flights, statement of secretary bernadette romulo puyat on the passing of former dot secretary ramon jimenez, jr., dot–ncr assists 24,000 in–transit nationals amid ecq of luzon, dot and ssi support philippine food producers in online philippine harvest, dot provides virtual backgrounds for video calls to encourage “travel from home”, dot offers online “enhanced opportunity” training for tourism stakeholders, dot-region 6 delivers filipino brand of service in crisis, dot outlines tourism response, post–covid 19 recovery plan to aid private sector, dot issues guidelines defining “new normal” for accommodation establishments, 24,836 hotel rooms reserved for ofws’ quarantine, bpo staff use – dot chief, stranded tourists welcome extended stay in batanes, dot welcomes lifting of travel ban for outbound passengers, recovery flights, tourism transport to continue for stranded passengers, statement of the department of tourism (dot) on covid-19 local transmission, dot statement on the curfew recommendation for lgus, dot, turkish airlines form partnership to increase philippine tourism from europe and mediterranean source markets, dot celebrates first run of the philippine international hot air balloon fiesta in calabarzon, puyat convenes tourism council; invites public to travel within ph, international visitor receipts hit usd 9.31b in 2019, 20.81% up from 2018, dot postpones nationwide mall sale to prioritize safety of citizens, department of tourism unveils new ad inspired by the abakada alphabet, highlighting unique filipino culture, puyat advocates for cultural and ecotourism in the new normal, relive the history of intramuros city with augmented reality app experience philippines, dot: 1st phl shopping fest kicks off march 1st, doh, dilg and dot give public gatherings green light, 2019 international arrivals exceed target with 8.26 million visitors to the philippines, dot welcomes lifting of taiwan travel ban, joint statement of the department of tourism and tourism congress of the philippines, dot backs “balik sa bohol” for tourism industry revival, intramuros reopens in the new normal, relaxed and standard health protocols, personalized trips key to tourism recovery, says latest philippine travel survey, dot files falsification raps against boracay tourists with forged covid test results, dot: reclassification of industries to hasten recovery, dot statement following the president’s latest directive to contain the ncov, guidelines in handling guests in tourism enterpises in the advent of ncov global health emergency, puyat eyes isabela as top agro-ecotourism destination, dot, dti inspect hotels and restaurants’ compliance with health and safety protocols, dot chief checks readiness of palawan, fresh produce at your doorstep, courtesy of dot–grab tie–up, dot ‘seal of good housekeeping’ boosts confidence among restos amid pandemic – puyat, dot celebrates as palawan reclaims best island in the world citation, tourism chief bullish on english schools’ recovery, dot, fao team up for sustainable farm tourism in ph, meetings, conventions allowed only under mgcq at 50% capacity – dot, boracay now open to youths, seniors from region, dot chief lauds senate approval of bayanihan 2 on final reading, cites plans for 10b stimulus fund, “think out of the box,” tourism industry urged in dot webinar, dot assures tourist stakeholders of all–out support for slow reopening, puyat meets with bohol execs to tackle tourism situation, recovery plans, dot, cloud panda ph launches phl harvest e-commerce site, statement of dot, dot to scale up baguio’s ridge to reef travel bubble plan across phl, dot celebrates “surprisingly spectacular diving” tag of 3 phl dive sites by lonely planet, phl bags best overseas diving award 2020, statement of department of tourism, dot’s phidex 2020 goes digital, dot-dole amended jmc further expands coverage of beneficiaries, dot welcomes new protocols for arriving passengers, dot bats for a more fun, safe and sustainable laguna, dot chief: green corridors are critical to tourism recovery, dot statement on destination test requirements, dot statement on boracay tourists, dot welcomes asean as a single tourism destination, iatf allows baguio hotels to receive domestic tourists under gcq, raising the bar of filipino hospitality with the leadership excellence series 2021, dot lauds inclusion of tourism frontliners in priority group for vaccination, dot’s ‘kain na’ cooks up online food fest, phl hosts 3rd asean meet on tourism professionals; dot commits to beef up competency of tourism workforce in the new normal, safety marshalls to ensure physical distancing when beaches, resorts reopen, 10,000 bpo jobs for displaced tourism workers, zero interest loans, no collateral, easy terms for distressed tourism businesses, puyat to grace baguio reopening; dot to go big on domestic tourism in 2021, chocolate, coffee, tea take centerstage in dot’s kain na food festival, dot receives safetravels stamp from world tourism body, puyat launches baguio’s vis.i.t.a. platform, reopening of boracay to more markets builds momentum for domestic tourism revival, puyat: even in most unusual ways, tourism must stay alive, message of tourism secretary bernadette romulo-puyat on the celebration of the world tourism day, dot statement on the city garden grand hotel, dot chief supports negrense cookbook launch, vows continued support to thriving food tourism scene in western visayas, dot statement on the closure of makati shangri-la hotel, dot pledges to help negros occidental get ready for more domestic tourists, dot welcomes the first two recipients of the wttc safe travel stamp, dot statement on baguio party incident, dot welcomes iatf decision to allow balikbayans, dot launches “have a safe trip, pinas” to promote safe travels and support tourism workers, dot celebrates ph’s victory as world’s leading dive destination and tourist attraction for intramuros in 2020, dot welcomes coron’s reopening on dec. 1 with health and safety measures in place, dot aims for data-driven response to tourism recovery under new normal with survey, dot backs enhanced contact tracing; announces low-cost covid tests with up-pgh for boracay-bound tourists, puyat encourages affected tourism workforce to avail of the expanded dot-dole financial assistance, dot welcomes strides to reboot mice, puyat visits batangas, shores up dive tourism, statement of the dot on cebu resort incident, dot presents virtual concert to promote manila’s cultural heritage sites, dot, makatimed foundation forge partnership for tourism destination health security, dot launches webinar training on reducing single-use plastics for hospitality sector, dot to assist zambales in safe and gradual tourism reopening, dot bats for uniform lgu travel requirements, dot, tpb promote pinoy christmas through music, dot’s 2020 kain na satisfies christmas cravings on fourth leg, dot’s 2020 kain na satisfies christmas cravings on fourth leg, dot prepares local destinations, accommodation establishments for wttc safe travels stamp application, 27,000 displaced tourism workers of car receive dot-dole financial assistance, dot backs temporary suspension of flights from uk, dot inspires balikbayans to come home with ‘balikan ang pilipinas’ campaign, dot, tpb expand rt-pcr financial subsidy program for 11,600 tourists through pcmc, dot reiterates penalties for quarantine hotels used for staycation and other purposes, dot supports strict entry protocols in light of new covid-19 variant, dot reiterates rule on staycation hotels, dot celebrates boracay and palawan inclusion in conde nast’s 25 best island beaches in the world list, dot issues guidelines for safe ‘staycation’, dot accreditation goes digital, boracay reopens, heralds “safe, gradual” revival of philippine tourism, dot gets coa’s highest rating on 2019 audit, dot sees domestic tourism boom in baguio with affordable antigen testing, phl islands named top favorites by int’l travel magazine, dot welcomes reopening of ilocos norte to luzon tourists on oct 15, dot funds rt-pcr testing of boracay tourism workers, dot inks tourism “cares for travel” msme loan program with sb corp, health, safety rules drawn up for recreational diving, batangas now open to divers – dot, puyat reminds ‘staycation hotels’ to follow rules, protocols, dot welcomes baguio city’s opening to guests from luzon starting oct. 22, dot statement on the opening of ilocos sur starting nov 15, ridge and reef corridor heralds domestic tourism recovery, puyat – hotels in gcq, mgcq may now be allowed to operate at full capacity, pra to amend retirement policies, suspends processing of srrv applications, dot supports expansion of palawan’s travel bubble starting oct. 30, tourism chief bats for covid-19 tests price cap, dot urges tourism businesses to avail of sb corp’s covid-19 loan program, dot leadership excellence series returns anew, dot statement on the inclusion of palawan and boracay in big 7 travel’s list of 50 most beautiful places, dot, tpb launch official philippine travel app, dot, dole agree on guidelines for cash-for-work program for displaced tourism workers, tour guides, dot’s kain na takes on food trips for november, intramuros is now asia’s leading tourist attraction the philippines and dot receive accolades at the 2020 world travel awards asia winners day, statement of the department of tourism on prrd’s signing of eo 118, dot inks mou on tourism education, training, dot partners with nissan to promote ‘safe trips’, dot allows operation of 7,200 hotels, resorts, dot lauds ibagiw 2020, baguio’s creative city festival, dot welcomes reopening of phl’s surfing capital, siargao, ridge and reef travel corridor expands to ilocos sur, dot chief visits baguio city, touts cultural tourism with creative crawls, sec. puyat to grace 2020 bambanti festival, dot allocates p340.7m for iloilo tourism infrastructure development, tourist arrivals mark 7.4m in november, up by 15.58%, safety of tourists is dot’s top priority – sec. puyat, dot, cab collaborate to enhance air passenger’s bill of rights, statement of the department of tourism, 2nd statement of the department of tourism, dot thanks smart for emergency satellite phones, dot–dotr meet to boost tourism infra, connectivity; puyat to push approval of 1b for night–rated airports, dot chief to visit, vows to revitalize baguio, tourism chief: phl one with asean in responding to covid crisis.

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Exploring Language in the Philippines: A Guide

What do you know about the language diversity in the Philippines ? The country is rich in languages, with multiple official ones. It also has various regional and minority languages. This mix plays a big role in the country’s cultural heritage.

Key Takeaways:

  • The Philippines has multiple official languages, including Filipino and English.
  • Tagalog, also known as Filipino, serves as the national language and is widely spoken across the country.
  • English plays a vital role in communication and business in the Philippines.
  • Regional and minority languages contribute to the linguistic diversity of the country.
  • Understanding the languages spoken in the Philippines is essential for effective communication and business success.

Filipino (Tagalog): The Nation’s Backbone

Filipino, also known as Tagalog, is the Philippines’ official language. It unites the nation’s diverse ethnic groups. With over 24 million speakers, it molds the country’s identity and is the main language in schools.

Originating from Central Luzon , Tagalog is spoken and understood across the Philippines. Being the national language, it unifies Filipinos and fosters cultural pride .

“Language is the key to understanding a nation’s culture and history. In the Philippines, it is the Filipino ( Tagalog ) language that connects the diverse communities and helps preserve our rich heritage.” – Dr. Maria L. Perla, Linguistics Professor

Tagalog : A Language of Tradition and Progress

Tagalog is celebrated for its melodic sounds and rich vocabulary. Its importance dates back to Spanish colonial times. Today, it grows and changes, showing the resilience and dynamism of Filipinos.

The Importance of Tagalog in Education and Everyday Life

Tagalog is crucial in government, media, and education. It is the teaching language in schools. This promotes effective communication and learning across the country.

A Window Into Filipino Culture

Learning Tagalog opens the door to vibrant Filipino culture. It offers deep insights into the customs and values of Filipino society.

Tagalog : Beyond Borders

Though mainly spoken in the Philippines, Tagalog ’s impact reaches worldwide. The global Filipino community shares its beauty, making it an important global language.

The English Connection: Bridging Cultures and Business

English is very important in the Philippines. It is the second official language and is spoken by many. The U.S. colonization helped make English widespread here. Around 55% of Filipinos speak English well. This helps businesses a lot.

Many businesses find English skills in the Philippines a big plus. Because many people speak English, companies can communicate better. They can also build strong connections with different Filipino communities.

English helps people from different parts of the Philippines talk to each other. It bridges language barriers and unites the country. The Philippines has lots of languages, but English brings people together.

But it’s not just spoken English that’s useful. Many Filipinos are good at writing in English too. This is great for businesses needing outsourcing, customer service, and content writing.

English Proficiency and Business Opportunities

Many global companies come to the Philippines because of its English-speaking workforce. The country’s workers are skilled and good at English. This has made the outsourcing business here very successful.

“The Philippines is a top choice for outsourcing due to its people who speak English well and low labor costs,” John Martinez, CEO of Outsourcing Solutions Inc, explains. “Good English skills are key to the outsourcing sector’s growth in the country.”

English skills open doors for international trade and partnerships. They make it easier to deal with, trade, and network with foreign businesses.

These skills are not just good for in-country businesses. They also make the Philippines more competitive globally. It becomes a great place for investments. Companies worldwide can hire local talent here who are good at English and understand different cultures.

The Role of English in Education

English is also very important in Philippine education. It is taught in schools together with Filipino . This approach makes sure students are fluent in both. They can then follow a wider range of study and career paths.

“Being good at English helps students succeed in school,” says Dr. Maria Santos, an education researcher. “It lets students use many educational resources, join global communities, and have more opportunities abroad.”

English in schools prepares students for a global future. They learn to communicate well which is crucial in international business. This prepares them to take part in global discussions and jobs.

English has become a key part of life in the Philippines. It helps in business, education, and bringing people together. English boosts the economy, helps in competing globally, and encourages cultural exchanges. It continues to shape the future of the Philippines.

Major Regional Languages: Linguistic Diversity

The Philippines is home to many important regional languages apart from its official ones. These languages add to the country’s wide variety of dialects .

Cebuano: Spoken in the Visayas and Mindanao Regions

Cebuano is a key regional language in the Philippines . Many people speak it in the Visayas and Mindanao . It’s the country’s second most common language.

Ilocano: Thriving in Northern Luzon

In Northern Luzon, Ilocano is widely spoken . It’s a source of identity and pride for Ilocano speakers. This language enriches the Philippines’ cultural and linguistic heritage.

Hiligaynon: Resonating across the Western Visayas

Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, is important in the Western Visayas. It’s tied to history and closely linked to Baybayin, an ancient script. Hiligaynon is vital in daily life, literature, and the arts.

These regional languages show the cultural and linguistic richness of the Philippines. Each one brings unique expressions and traditions. They highlight the nation’s dedication to its language heritage.

Discussing languages like Cebuano , Ilocano , and Hiligaynon highlights the value of diverse dialects in the Philippines . It helps bring people together, encourages cultural sharing, and builds an inclusive society.

Minority Languages : Ethnolinguistic Groups

The Philippines is famous for its language diversity. This diversity is shown through the variety of minority languages. These languages highlight the country’s rich cultural heritage.

Tausug is one of these languages, spoken mainly in the Philippines’ southern areas. It reflects the culture and traditions of the Tausug people.

In Central Luzon, Kapampangan is widely used. It shows the unique identity and pride of the Kapampangan people in their language and culture.

Another language, Waray-Waray , is common in Eastern Visayas. The Waray people, its speakers, have a strong community bond. They value their rich history linked to their language .

Languages like Tausug , Kapampangan , and Waray-Waray add to the Philippines’ diverse linguistic scene. They showcase the cultural variety of the country.

Sample Table: Minority Languages in the Philippines

minority languages in the philippines

The Impact on Business: Navigating the Linguistic Landscape

The Philippines has many languages , which is both a challenge and an opportunity for businesses. To succeed in marketing and communications, understanding this diversity is key. Businesses should adapt their efforts to the different languages to communicate well and respect the culture.

Doing business in the Philippines means dealing with many languages. Besides Filipino (Tagalog) and English, there are several regional languages. This makes it hard for businesses to share their message with everyone.

“To do well in the Filipino market, businesses must understand the value of language and culture. It’s not just about translating words. It’s about knowing what matters to the people you’re talking to.”

Localization is more than translating . It’s about making content fit the local culture, likes, and expectations. Using the right language for business in the Philippines helps build trust with customers.

Understanding the Language Challenges

Businesses in the Philippines face the challenge of using many languages. They need to communicate well across different cultures. Some key issues include:

  • Changing marketing messages for different language preferences
  • Ensuring translations of products are accurate and respect the culture
  • Offering customer support in many languages
  • Communicating well with local partners and stakeholders

Businesses that can meet these challenges can do better in the Philippines. Using professional language services helps overcome barriers. It helps connect with the audience in a meaningful way.

The Importance of Cultural Sensitivity

When working in the Philippines, it’s important to be sensitive to culture. Language and culture are closely linked. Understanding this helps improve communication.

Localization isn’t just about words. It’s about knowing and respecting local customs and values. This approach helps businesses earn trust and succeed long-term.

Working with Professional Language Service Providers

It’s important for businesses to work with experts in language. These providers offer proper translations and know the culture well.

Providers like Contentech help with many services. They assist in translating marketing materials, website localization, and more. Working with them helps businesses communicate better.

By working with language service providers, businesses can reach their audience better. They can overcome language barriers and do well in the Philippine market.

The Role of Professional Language Service Providers

In the Philippines, the mix of languages makes communication tough for businesses. They rely on professional language service providers to help. Companies like Contentech offer solutions for delivering messages that fit the culture and language of the area.

These experts know the Filipino languages well. They make sure businesses can speak to their Filipino customers properly. They help with translating marketing materials, making websites feel local, and interpreting.

Working with companies like Contentech is very beneficial for businesses in the Philippines. They know both the language and culture deeply. This helps tailor messages to really speak to the audience.

“Partnering with a reliable language service provider can give businesses a competitive edge in the Philippines. By leveraging their multilingual content solutions , businesses can effectively communicate their brand message, foster connections, and achieve success in this vibrant market.”

Why Choose a Professional Language Service Provider?

Language service providers do more than just translate . They help businesses fit into the Filipino culture and speak the language. Here’s why they are so important:

  • Expertise in Filipino Languages: They have native speakers and experts. This team ensures content is accurately translated and localized.
  • Cultural Sensitivity: They understand the culture deeply. This lets them create content that really connects with the Filipino people.
  • Quality Assurance: They check their work carefully. This makes sure that the translations are correct and consistent.
  • Efficient Turnaround Time: They are good at meeting deadlines. They can handle lots of work quickly without sacrificing quality.

Working with a provider like this removes language barriers. It lets businesses share their message clearly and make a strong impact in the Filipino market.

Choosing the Right Language Service Provider

It’s important to pick the best language service provider. Here’s what you should look for:

  • Industry Experience: Choose someone with knowledge of your field. They’ll know exactly what you need.
  • Language Specialization: Make sure they are experts in the Filipino languages you need. This ensures high-quality translations.
  • Client Testimonials: Reading reviews will show you their reputation and quality of service.
  • Additional Services: Look at what else they offer. This could include website localization or interpretation services, for example.

Choosing well can greatly affect your business’s success in the Philippines. A reliable provider like Contentech offers valuable solutions for reaching your audience.

Partnering with Contentech helps businesses move past language obstacles. They connect better with their audience and succeed in the varied Philippine market. Thanks to their expertise, businesses can adapt their strategies for the local culture and language.

Time to Thrive

To succeed in the Philippines, businesses must understand the local languages. Language is key to communication and building connections. Embracing growth, adaptability, and culture leads to success.

Working with language experts like Contentech is vital. They know the Filipino languages well. Contentech helps businesses send the right messages to the Filipino market.

“Understanding the local language is key to building trust and credibility with customers. It allows businesses to connect on a deeper level, which is essential for long-term success in the Philippines.” – John Smith, CEO of XYZ Corporation

Recognizing linguistic diversity in the Philippines opens new doors. Cultural insights can shape marketing, products, and services. This makes them more appealing to Filipinos.

Connecting with the Filipino Community

Connection is more than language skills. It’s about knowing local ways of life. By understanding culture, businesses show they care about the Filipino market.

Collaborating with local influencers is smart. They can boost a business’s image and help it fit into the community.

Unlocking Communication Opportunities

Knowing Filipino languages means more chances to communicate. Businesses can reach more people by respecting linguistic diversity.

Localization is crucial. It involves adapting content for different regions. This personal touch builds trust and loyalty.

Achieving Success in the Filipino Market

Success here is about more than money. It’s also about improving the community. Embracing diversity helps businesses grow and supports the Philippines.

Learning and working with providers like Contentech is key. They help businesses overcome language barriers and succeed.

Learn about languages in the Philippines: both the official languages of the Philippines and the many unofficial and endangered languages

The Philippines is famous for its many languages. Alongside the official languages , many unofficial and endangered languages enrich the country’s cultural fabric.

The country officially speaks Filipino and English. Filipino comes from Tagalog and is the national language . English is used in government, schools, and trade.

Aside from these, the Philippines has many regional and minority languages . These reflect the cultures and identities of different ethnic groups.

Languages spoken in the Philippines:

  • Visayan languages, like Cebuano , Hiligaynon , and Waray-Waray, are in the Visayas and parts of Mindanao.
  • Bicolano is mainly in southeast Luzon.
  • Ilocano is a major language in Northern Luzon.
  • Kapampangan is central to Luzon’s culture.
  • Tausug, from the Sulu Archipelago, highlights the Moro people’s heritage.

These regional languages add to the Philippines’ diversity, showing the rich traditions and histories within the nation.

Endangered Languages in the Philippines

“Language is the heart of what makes a culture and identity. Sadly, urbanization, globalization, and a lack of transmission put some Philippine languages at risk of vanishing.”

Many indigenous languages in the Philippines are endangered. With few speakers remaining, these languages risk disappearing. They embody the unique heritage of certain ethnic groups, needing protection and rejuvenation for the future.

Examples of endangered languages in the Philippines:

  • Kanakaney, from Luzon’s Kalinga area, is nearly lost with very few elderly speakers.
  • Samal Bajau in Mindanao is endangered.
  • Yogad, in Ifugao province, is severely at risk with barely any speakers left.
  • Ati, in Western Visayas, faces extinction due to displacement and language shift.

Recording, protecting, and revitalizing these languages is vital. It’s the key to keeping the Philippines’ linguistic and cultural diversity alive.

languages spoken in the philippines

Is Spanish spoken in the Philippines?

During the Spanish rule, Spanish was the official language in the Philippines . But, its use has dropped over time. Nowadays, only a few people speak Spanish. Still, Spanish has deeply influenced the Philippines – its culture, language, and traditions.

Now, not many people speak Spanish as their first language in the Philippines . Most Filipinos mainly speak Filipino (based on Tagalog ) and English. But, Spanish words and phrases still live on in the Filipino language . This shows how Spanish influenced the country’s language.

“Spanish colonization in the Philippines played a significant role in shaping the country’s history and culture. It introduced not only the Spanish language but also aspects of Spanish culture, religion, and governance.”

Even if Spanish isn’t spoken much, its marks are everywhere in Filipino society. We can see Spanish architectural styles in old churches and houses . Filipinos also love Spanish food. Spanish has even helped shape some regional dialects in certain areas.

Official languages of the Philippines

The Philippines has two main languages: Filipino and English. Filipino comes from Tagalog and unites the country. English is used in government, schools, and business.

Filipino helps bring everyone in the Philippines together. Even though there are over 180 languages spoken , Filipino lets people understand each other. This creates unity.

English got to the Philippines through American control. Now, it’s a major school subject and many speak it well. This makes it easy for visitors and businesses to talk to locals.

Both Filipino and English are important in the Philippines. They help in dealing with the government, doing business, and enjoying the local culture. These languages connect folks and help build relationships.

“Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going.” – Rita Mae Brown

What is Tagalog?

Tagalog is a popular language in the Philippines, spoken by many. It’s related to Filipino , the country’s standard language. Tagalog and Filipino help people from different regions communicate.

These languages are similar but used in different ways. They share words and grammar, making them easy to understand for speakers of both. Filipino, as the national language, has helped spread Tagalog all over the Philippines.

Did you know? Tagalog and English both use the Latin alphabet. This makes learning Tagalog easier. The similarities between Tagalog and Filipino ensure people from various areas can talk to each other.

Tagalog and Filipino: Key Differences

Although similar, Tagalog and Filipino have their differences. Tagalog is for specific areas, while Filipino is used all over the nation. Filipino aims to be a standard language, unlike Tagalog ’s regional varieties.

Example Sentences

Let’s look at some examples to see how Tagalog and Filipino compare:

This examples show the small differences between the two languages. Despite this, Tagalog and Filipino speakers can easily understand each other. This helps unite the people of the Philippines.

English in the Philippines

English has played a big role in the Philippines since the American occupation. It has become widely spoken over the years. It is now a big part of education, government, and business.

Because of its history, English is one of the Philippines’ official languages, along with Filipino. It’s used in schools all over the country. This helps Filipino students get a good education.

English is also used in government and administration. It helps different regions and ethnic groups communicate. This promotes unity in a country with many languages .

“English has become a bridge that connects people from different backgrounds and allows for effective communication in various domains.”

Being good at English has helped the Philippines in the global job market. The country is a key player in the call center industry. This is because Filipinos are very good at English.

The history of English in the Philippines has made the country’s language rich. English, along with Filipino and local languages, tells the story of the Filipino people. It shows their ability to adapt and be multilingual.

In the end, English is very important in the Philippines. It helps with talking between cultures, learning, and finding jobs. It has helped Filipinos succeed internationally.

The Philippines is known for its rich cultural heritage, especially in language . It has official, regional, and minority languages. This shows the country’s vibrant culture and diverse society. Understanding these languages is key for good communication and business success in the Philippines .

Getting to know the languages in the Philippines helps us appreciate its culture. It also lets businesses connect more personally with locals. By acknowledging the variety of languages, companies can make their messages more relatable to different communities.

For businesses keen on understanding the Filipino language scene, working with language service providers like Contentech is a smart move. These experts know the local languages and cultural details well. They help businesses communicate their messages accurately and reach their target audience effectively.

To truly embrace the Philippines’ language diversity is to embrace its culture. Businesses that recognize and value the Philippines’ many languages can bond better with the Filipino people. This can open new opportunities in this lively and colorful market.

What are the official languages of the Philippines?

What is filipino, how many speakers does tagalog have, what is the role of english in the philippines, are there regional languages in the philippines, are there minority languages in the philippines, how does language diversity impact businesses in the philippines, how can language service providers help businesses in the philippines, how can businesses thrive in the diverse market of the philippines, what languages are spoken in the philippines, what are the two official languages of the philippines, what is the significance of english in the philippines, how does the linguistic diversity of the philippines contribute to its cultural heritage, source links.

  • https://www.futurelearn.com/info/futurelearn-international/what-languages-are-spoken-in-the-philippines
  • https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/philippines-language-report-what-spoken-ofer-tirosh
  • https://contentech.com/exploring-the-multilingual-tapestry-what-languages-does-the-philippines-speak/

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Hello! I'm Wise, a Filipina with a deep love for my country and a passion for sharing its beauty with the world. As a writer, blogger, and videographer, I capture the essence of the Philippines through my eyes, hoping to give foreign visitors a true taste of what makes these islands so special.

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Things to do in the Philippines

El Nido in Palawan

Know before you go: the Philippines

Whether you’re visiting a bustling city or chilling out on a beach, prepare for your trip to the Philippines with this eco-friendly guide.

Located in the Pacific Ocean near the equator, the Republic of the Philippines consists of around 7,640 islands — about 2,000 of which are inhabited — that form an archipelago. The country can be divided into three main areas: Luzon (the largest, northernmost island, which includes Manila); a group of islands called the Visayas (including the major islands Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, and Masbate); and Mindanao, the second-largest island in the Philippines, found at the southern end of the archipelago.

From bustling cities to stunning beaches and mountains, the Philippines has a lot to offer adventurous explorers. Here are a few tips, tricks, and resources for travelers looking to find fun in the Philippines.

CITIES TO VISIT

Manila Manila, known as the “Pearl of the Orient”, is the nation’s capital city. This bustling historic city is full of things to see and do — including museums, parks, theaters, shopping malls and a plethora of restaurants to choose from. The Philippines is quickly becoming a destination for foodies, and Manila is well known for its varied cuisine and street food markets, like the Legazpi Sunday Market, Quiapo Market, and the country’s very own Chinatown, Binondo.

Casa Manila Museum

Sustainable travel tip: Many street vendors sell fresh fruit drinks great for cooling down on hot days, so bring your own metal straw and reusable bottle to prevent unnecessary plastic waste.

Davao City Considered the largest city in the Philippines (by size) and capital city of the Davao region, Davao City is a great getaway. Popular destinations include Eden Nature Park (a mountain resort perfect for relaxation), Malagos Garden Resort (a 12-hectare nature theme park that features the first chocolate museum in the Philippines), and Jack’s Ridge (a dining destination with a spectacular view of the city). Mount Apo, the highest mountain in the Philippines and a mountaineer’s dream, is also in Davao City. Its highest point reaches an elevation of 2,954 meters (9,692 feet). Davao is also known as the home to the critically-endangered bird species the Philippine Eagle (also known as the monkey-eating eagle), which was named as the national bird of the Philippines.

Cebu City A perfect balance of island coast and cosmopolitan living, Cebu City is one of the Philippines’ top destinations among both foreign and domestic travelers. It’s also the country’s oldest city and one of the birthplaces of Christianity in the Philippines. Just outside the city’s borders, tourists can enjoy swimming with a variety of species off the coast of the island, or they can try more adventurous activities like canyoneering at Kawasan Falls.

Vigan Dating back to the Spanish colonial era, Vigan sits on the western coast of the island of Luzon, near Manila. Historic Vigan is a UNESCO World Heritage site and is full of unique architecture reflecting a fusion of Asian and European design, and cobblestone streets.

Vigan, Philippines

Sustainable travel tip: Bring along an eco-bag when you visit the small shops of Vigan to reduce the need for a plastic bag.

Since the Philippines has thousands of islands, visitors are never far from a beach. You might want to try one of these under-the-radar locations that are emerging as popular beach destinations that go above and beyond the Philippines’ most well-known beach, Boracay.

Panglao Island (Bohol) The main gateway to the province of Bohol, Panglao Island to the southwest is a 20-kilometer long limestone island known for its popular diving spots. You’ll also find many white-sand beaches like Alona, Tawala, Dumaluan, and Doljo, all accessed via the newly-built Panglao-Bohol International Airport.

Panglao houses some of Bohol’s premium accommodation establishments offering 5-star amenities and services. The island also serves as the jumping point for other water-based adventures, such as dolphin and whale watching at Pamilacan Island, and diving at Balicasag Island.

the beautiful beach on Panglao Island, Bohol

Sustainable travel tip: Look for sunscreens labeled “reef safe”, which are formulated without ingredients that can be toxic to coral reefs and marine life.

El Nido El Nido, part of Palawan Island, has white-sand beaches, limestone cliffs, coral reefs, and clear, fish-filled waters, so it’s a popular spot for swimming, diving, and kayaking. El Nido serves as a jumping-off point for island-hopping and exploring the secrets of the Bacuit Archipelago.

White island, Camiguin island, Philippines.

Camiguin Known as the Island Born of Fire, Camiguin is a pear-shaped island with 7 volcanoes that formed many of its unique attractions. The island is full of natural wonders, including lagoons and lakes; cold, hot and soda springs; pristine waterfalls; and white-sand beaches on par with the finest in the country.

Siargao If surfing is more your style, this lesser-known location, near the island of Mindanao, is renowned for its quality waves, cool island culture, beautiful reefs, blue waters, and stunning resorts.

Sustainable travel tip: Visiting lesser-known spots such as Siargao doesn't just mean fewer lines and better selfies, but a decreased impact on the environment.

WILDLIFE AND NATURAL BEAUTY

Calauit Island Calauit Island, known for the crystal-clear waters off its shores, offers eco-tourists the chance to swim with dugongs . These animals, which are related to manatees, are believed to have inspired legends about mermaids. Locals on Calauit Island lead conservation-minded tours and teach tourists about dugongs and how they can help ensure their continued survival.

Sustainable travel tip: To ensure the sustainability of the ocean ecosystems, please do not touch the corals. Local vendors have a wide selection of souvenirs.

dugong (seacow or sea cow) swimming in the tropical sea water.

Chocolate Hills On the island of Bohol, the famous Chocolate Hills look like something from another world as they seem to tumble out, one after another, for as far as the eye can see. The beautiful landscape is actually a natural formation that slowly took shape over eons. In the summer, when the 1,200+ peaked and rounded mounds aren’t covered in green vegetation, they’re said to look like — you guessed it — chocolate. The majestic Chocolate Hills has been designated as a National Geological Monument by the Philippines.

Panorama of The Chocolate Hills. Bohol, Philippines

Ifugao Rice Terraces The Ifugao Rice Terraces are another example of the beautiful landscapes that can be found throughout the Philippines. The mountains of the Ifugao province have been cultivated for thousands of years with terraced fields where rice is farmed. Not only are the rice terraces beautiful to behold, but they’re also an example of industry working in harmony with nature.

world heritage Ifugao rice terraces in Batad, northern Luzon, Philippines.

NATIONAL PARKS

The Philippines is home to more than 30 national parks, including these top-rated ones: Calauit Safari Park, Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park, Aurora Memorial National Park, Biak-na-Bato National Park, Caramoan Peninsula National Park, Libmanan Caves National Park, Mounts Iglit–Baco National Park Fuyot Springs National Park and Minalungao National Park. The parks offer activities like zip lining, boating, camping, hiking, river cruising, wildlife spotting, snorkeling, and kayaking.

giraffes on savannah, Calauit safari park, Busuanga, Palawan, Philippines.

Sustainable travel tip: There are dedicated companies that specialize in eco-tourism , and resources, such as Simply Philippines , to help make sustainable adventure more accessible.

BEFORE YOU GO

Travel requirements Travelers from the U.S. will need a valid passport but do not need to secure a visa to visit the Philippines. The World Health Organization recommends the following vaccinations for traveling to the islands: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, typhoid, cholera, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, meningitis, polio, measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), T-DAP (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis), chickenpox, shingles, pneumonia, and influenza.

When to go The high season for tourism is December to April. The Philippines is a tropical country, and the hotter, drier months (85 degrees F and up) are March through June. July through October brings the potential for typhoons; the “cooler” season runs from November to February, when it remains at around 78 degrees F. The further south you go, the more humid the weather gets, and rain showers are likely regardless of the season.

Sustainable travel tip: Don’t purchase travel-sized toiletries in plastic bottles. Instead, use refillable containers or look for packaging-free alternatives, like shampoo bars. You can also find multi-use products, like Castile soaps, that can be used for washing your hair, body, and even clothing.

What to pack Bring lightweight, comfortable clothing (it can be casual) and make sure to pack a swimsuit if you plan on heading to the beach or doing any boating or diving. You’ll want to have a pair of sunglasses as well as rain gear, and make sure to bring comfortable shoes like sneakers or sandals. A waterproof bag can be helpful for keeping electronics, like phones and cameras, dry. Sunscreen and a mosquito repellent that contains DEET are must-bring items.

Sustainable travel tip: It always helps to bring your own reusable bag or bag-for-life along with your backpack to prevent additional plastic waste.

Getting around Most people traveling to the Philippines from the U.S. will probably fly into Manila’s NAIA airport or the more recently opened Mactan-Cebu International Airport, which was named the Asia-Pacific Medium Airport of the Year in the CAPA 2018 Asia Aviation Awards for Excellence .

If you want to go to multiple islands, you can find flights that connect to smaller airports throughout the Philippines. Traveling by boat is also an option when getting to many of the islands in the region. If you’re in one of the major cities, “jeepneys” — small and colorful buses — are a popular way to get around.

Currency The Philippine Peso is the official currency of the Philippines. Each peso consists of 100 centavos. Bills and coins are used in the Philippines. It’s easy to exchange money at a shopping mall, and traveler’s checks are usually accepted for money exchange. ATMs are readily available in the major cities, but if you’re traveling to smaller islands or more remote areas, it’s a good idea to stock up on cash before your arrival. Credit cards are accepted in the bigger cities and more populated beach areas. Keep your small change for paying jeepney drivers.

Sustainable travel tip: Consider donating your leftover currency at the end of your trip to a local charity dedicated to cleaning beaches or preserving wildlife.

Language and culture Filipino and English are the official languages of the Philippines — but the Philippines is an ethnically diverse country (and was a Spanish colony for 300 years), so more than 150 languages are spoken in the region. Tagalog is a common dialect.

The dominant religion in the Philippines is Catholicism, and churches abound throughout the country. The older generations in the Philippines tend to be quite religious.

Manila Cathedral, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines

DOS AND DON’TS

You might want to purchase travel insurance before heading out on your Filipino adventure. Check with the U.S. Department of State for the latest information on any current travel advisories. As with travel to any foreign region, make sure to remain mindful of personal safety at all times.

It’s considered polite to use respectful terms like “Sir” or “Ma’am.” Familial words like Tito/Tita (Uncle/Aunt) for elders, Lolo/Lola (grandfather/grandmother), and Kuya/Ate (older brother/sister) can be used; the words “Po” and “Opo” are terms of respect. Don’t refer to older people by their first names.

Always be friendly and wave back at anyone who waves to you. Tipping is not mandatory but is appreciated. Don’t lose your temper or be confrontational; do not refuse food or hospitality when it’s offered to you. Don’t walk alone, particularly at night, and keep your belongings close to you at all times. Never insult the Philippines or Filipino people.

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  • Published: 12 July 2023

Ideologies underlying language policy and planning in the Philippines

  • Jie Zeng   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0983-9075 1 , 2 &
  • Xiaolong Li 1  

Humanities and Social Sciences Communications volume  10 , Article number:  405 ( 2023 ) Cite this article

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  • Language and linguistics

This study utilizes Cobarrubias’ (1983. Ethical issues in status planning. In: Progress in language planning: international perspectives. pp. 41–85) taxonomy of language ideologies as the framework to uncover the ideologies underlying language policy and planning (LPP) in the Philippines. We discuss the different language ideologies, including linguistic assimilation, vernacularization, linguistic pluralism, and internationalization, through a historical analysis of the mandated LPP in the Philippines and how they have influenced the country’s LPP. Our findings reveal that legislation and administrative measures have played a crucial role in the process of linguistic assimilation, which has historically been the dominant ideology underlying LPP in the Philippines. Furthermore, we highlight that various language ideologies can coexist and be present simultaneously within a language policy or society. We also posit that Cobarrubias’ (1983. Ethical issues in status planning. In: Progress in language planning: international perspectives. pp. 41–85) framework has the potential to aid in the analysis and enhancement of LPP in other countries facing similar linguistic scenarios. Additionally, multilingual and multicultural countries must continually adapt their LPP to emphasize inclusive language policies, language maintenance initiatives, and national identity construction that values and respects linguistic diversity, empowers local communities, and strives for social inclusivity and cohesion within the context of neocolonialism and globalization.

Introduction

Language ideology, as defined by Silverstein ( 1979 ), is a “set of beliefs about language articulated by users as a rationalization or justification of perceived language structure and use” (p. 193). This definition has been used widely in language policy and planning (LPP) scholarship primarily because it concerns individual speakers’ political and economic interests, ethnic and other interest groups, and nation-states (Kroskrity, 2004 ). Allocating and reallocating functions to specific languages in the local speech community are a few of the measures taken to conduct LPP. The shift of linguistic functions usually accompanies the change of status. During the process, most postcolonial countries have to deal with the relationship between less influential indigenous languages and more economically and influentially powerful languages left by the former colonizers (Majhanovich, 2014 ). Against the backdrop of neocolonialism and globalization, numerous indigenous languages in those postcolonial nations which symbolize ethnic identity and connections to heritage are marginalized by the threat of more powerful languages which have come from their previous colonizers or more powerful languages (García, 2003 ). Previous studies focus more theoretically than empirically, mainly on LPP, particularly in education. However, not much has been done to comprehensively analyze the historical development of the LPP with a country as well as the linguistic ideologies of the LPP simultaneously.

The Philippines, a postcolonial ethnolinguistically diverse and multilingual country with over 400 years of colonial history, implemented the Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) policy in 2009 (Tupas and Martin, 2017 ). Historically, extensive LPP has been implemented in the country, sparking scholars’ interest in researching this linguistic topic (e.g., Dekker and Young, 2005 ; Gonzalez, 1998 ; Martin, 2020 ; Ricento, 2000 ; Sibayan, 2011 ). The country, needless to say, has a complex language ideology, prolonged language evolution, and multiple LPPs. However, such studies mainly concentrate on specific historical fragments, ignoring the evolution of the LPP conducted in the country. To date, only one study investigates the history of LPP in the Philippines, i.e., Bernabe ( 1987 ). Explorations of ideologies of the LPP are rare and often overlooked, but such analyses are fundamental not only to the understanding of LPP in the Philippines but also to advancing its practice and implementation.

Given this gap in LPP scholarship in the Philippines, this study analyzes the ideologies embedded in the LPP implemented in the Philippines from the country’s Spanish colonial period to the present. This study utilizes Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of ideologies to comprehensively analyze the ideologies underlying LPP mandated in the history of the Philippines. The study also provides implications for postcolonial multilingual countries with similar language situations as the Philippines on LPP, language maintenance, and construction of national identity in neocolonialism and globalization.

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of language ideologies

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of language ideologies is a framework that offers a system for classifying various approaches to LPP. It is the process of deciding how to utilize, classify, and employ languages in society. Figure 1 shows the four categories of the taxonomy: linguistic assimilation, vernacularization, linguistic pluralism, and internationalization (pp. 63–66).

figure 1

The taxonomy includes four categories of language ideologies in Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) framework.

Linguistic assimilation encourages a belief in the superiority of the dominant language based on a given society in that all speakers can use and function in the dominant language(s) regardless of their language background. It accords linguistic superiority to the dominant language by depriving the rights of non-dominant languages. The process of assimilation can be achieved through various types, for instance, colonization, migration, immigration, and occupation.

Vernacularization prioritizes indigenous languages in a society’s language policies which refers to selecting, restoring, and using an indigenous language by giving it the official language status and finally standardizing it. Cobarrubias ( 1983 ) mentioned several processes, including the resuscitation of a dead language, restoring a classical language, and promoting an indigenous language to official status and standardization. Recruiting indigenous languages as a medium of instruction (MOI) into the educational system is widely adopted to achieve vernacularization.

Linguistic pluralism refers to the acknowledgment and celebration of linguistic diversity within a society and the government’s responsibility to promote and encourage the preservation and advancement of these various languages. This concept encompasses the coexistence of different languages and their roles in governmental affairs and involves accepting multilingual situations in society while committing to maintaining and developing diverse languages on an equitable basis.

Internationalization involves the adoption of a language that is not native but serves as a dominant means of communication, either as an official language or as a language of instruction, at some stage during the educational process. In postcolonial countries, it is common to adopt the language of their former colonizer and use it in all major domains to promote development and advancement.

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy is widely used in LPP studies (e.g., Johnson, 2016 ; Kamwangamalu and Kamwangamalu, 2016 ; Lee et al., 2022 ; Reagan, 1986 ; Woolard and Schieffelin, 1994 ) because it provides a structured and comprehensive way to understand the underlying beliefs, values, and goals that guide language planning decisions. This is the primary reason we adopt it as the framework to analyze the LPP in the Philippines. Furthermore, the broad applicability of the framework make it can be applied to analyze language planning ideologies in a variety of contexts, including postcolonial and multilingual societies like the Philippines, and we can use the taxonomy to compare the ideologies embedded in the LPP of the Philippines with those of other countries or regions, and gain a deeper understanding of similarities and differences. Thirdly, by using the historical perspective of the framework, we can gain insights into the ideologies of historical LPP decisions in the Philippines and understand their impact on the country’s linguistic diversity, language use, and language rights. Using Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of language planning ideologies can help provide a nuanced and insightful analysis of LPP in the Philippines and shed light on the complex relationships between language, culture, and politics in this context.

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) four categories, linguistic assimilation, vernacularization, linguistic pluralism, and internationalization, have been throughout the development of LPP in the Philippines and have influenced each other in this process, especially since the beginning of the colonial history of the country, which began with Spanish colonizers’ arrival in 1565. Spain then ceded the Philippines to the United States in 1898, ushering in a long colonial history that established a multilingual environment and introduced various language policies to the country. The most potent of these policies was the English-only policy mandated by the American occupiers, which profoundly influenced the country. In 1946, the Philippines gained independence from the United States, and the subsequent decades saw the establishment, development, and unprecedented emphasis on Tagalog and the Tagalog-based national language, Filipino. In recent years, the most significant LPP initiatives in the Philippines have been the Bilingual Policy (BEP) mandated in 1978 and the Mother Tongue-based Multilanguage Education Policy (MTB-MLE) mandated in 2008. These policies prioritize language diversity and preservation while providing education in the mother tongue, contributing to the country’s sociocultural development. Language ideologies behind these promulgated LPPs demonstrate the continuous consistency of assimilation while other ideologies are incorporated. The following sections will present the review and analysis of LPP across Philippine historical periods following Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy.

Spanish colonial period

The islands known today as the Philippines were given their name in 1542 by the Spanish navigator Villalobos, in honor of Philip, the Spanish Crown prince. Spanish became the official language of the Philippines after Spanish invaders led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi occupied Cebu Island in 1565, marking the beginning of 333 years of colonial rule (Mente and Valila Jr, 2022 ; Zhou et al., 2015 ). In 1571, Spain established a colonial government in Manila, from which they continuously undertook political, social, cultural, and religious reforms to transform the native Filipino nation.

Although Spain was the first colonizer of the Philippines and brought the earliest language policies, linguistically speaking, not much progress was made besides using Spanish for religious and commercial purposes (Francia, 2013 ; Kawahara, 1996 ; Nadeau, 2020 ). Four factors primarily influenced the LPP under Spanish rule: the government in Spain, the Spanish colonial government, Christian missionaries, and the indigenous people (Kawahara, 1996 ). The LPP was officially made in Spain and then conveyed to the colonial government for implementation. The missionaries, who were the only Spaniards in contact with the local people, as well as the attitudes of the indigenous people towards these Spanish missionaries, also played a role in implementing these decrees.

During Spanish colonization, the colonizers employed religious and educational measures as the main strategies to implement the LPP. The earliest LPP was introduced during the friars’ attempt to propagate Christianity. As the direct enforcers of the LPP, the missionaries chose Spanish as the primary language for communication because of the complex multilingual situations (Bernabe, 1987 ; Nadeau, 2020 ). While Spanish was introduced and used as a foreign language during preaching, it did not necessarily reflect the ideology of internationalism as its use was confined to evangelization. The promulgation of Spanish to indigenous people was initiated by decree in 1634, though the religious function of the Spanish remained unaffected. It was not until 1868 that the Spanish were freed from the religious associations. In the ensuing decades, various decrees and policies concerning the LPP were proposed, promulgated, retarded, and disregarded, indicating a lack of consistency in the friars’ selective implementation and partial ignorance. The friars aimed to ensure their local power by monopolizing communication tools and thus paid little attention to promoting Spanish, even publicly opposing and categorically preventing its spread (Kawahara, 1996 ; Thompson, 2003 ).

In 1863, a watershed decree known as the Education Act marked a turning point in Spanish’s linguistic function in education. This legislation established free and compulsory education in Spanish for a specific age group, and it also led to the reformation of civil servants’ language proficiency, requiring them to learn Spanish. During the Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines, a limited number of literacy schools (~2000) were established under the guise of primary schools, which focused on teaching religious content, calligraphy, and elementary mathematics (Bolton et al., 2020 ; Gonzalez, 1998 ; Stanley, 2013 ). However, there were no traditional schools that provided access to higher education. The Spanish educational system remained highly elitist, and only a select group of Philippine elites had access to it (Burton, 2013 ; Churchill, 2003 ). Despite the colonial government’s imposition of various language policies and language planning programs, the lack of consistency, as well as disobedience and ignorance on the part of some missionaries, ultimately resulted in the failure and abandonment of these decrees and policies (Bernabe, 1987 ).

During the early phases of Spanish colonialism in the Philippines, LPP displayed differentiation characteristics and lacked the four categories of Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of language ideologies. Nevertheless, the Spanish colonizers eventually recognized the significance of linguistic assimilation, albeit too late in promoting the use of Spanish in the country. The indigenous population demonstrated a minimal inclination towards acquiring fluency in Spanish, primarily due to the complex interplay of factors. In their pursuit of assimilation as a fundamental tenet of LPP, the Spanish colonizers faced significant obstacles and were ultimately unsuccessful. This lack of success can be attributed to the fact that before American influence, most of the local population spoke their native languages, with <3% of the population able to communicate proficiently in Spanish.

American colonial period

Following the conclusion of the Spanish-American War, the Treaty of Paris (1898) witnessed the twilight of the Spanish regime and the dawn of the Americans. In contrast to Spain, the United States implemented a language assimilation policy, which entailed promoting English in the Philippines and instituting English education for all (Sibayan and Gonzalez, 2011 ). By the end of American colonization, colonialists’ language gained wider currency and acceptance in society through effective LPP. Through compelling education and legislation, English was established as the dominant language, gained educational and administrational function, and the ideology of assimilation and internationalism was clearly reflected during LPP’s conduction.

The successful promulgation of English and the ideology of assimilation and internationalism were aided by an English-only policy, implemented through effective and practical measures. The earliest instance of LPP in America can be traced back to 1898 when William McKinley allowed the First Philippine Commission to introduce English as an instructional language as a crucial part of military strategy. However, due to the difficulties and varieties of local languages, the result was a monolingual system in English, with no attention paid to the other indigenous languages of the Philippines. Nevertheless, a new public, mandatory, and free education system was established by promulgating the Malolos Constitution . Unlike the Spanish colonizers, the Americans installed a highly centralized educational system and supported it by importing American teachers and books into the colony to promote English as the MOI ( PVAO ).

Additionally, various educational institutes were established to prepare local teachers and leaders to provide English-only education (Thompson, 2003 ). Under the robust enforcement of the English-only policy, the number of English speakers soared. As Ammon ( 2001 ) pointed out, the success of the English-only policy was tightly linked with the indigenous people’s eagerness to learn the language, the system of public instruction in English, and the incentives given to Filipinos who could gain better career opportunities, government service, and participation in politics by learning English. When the country gained independence, over 35 percent of the population had mastered the language, which had become a widespread lingua franca used in government, schools, and society (Schneider, 2007 ). The English language, imported from American colonizers, achieved assimilation and internationalism through their LPP. However, during the robust enforcement of the English-only policy, with its powerful ideology of assimilation, the vernacular languages were marginalized.

During the American colonial period, assimilation was achieved through an English-only policy, leading to the establishment of English as a dominant language and lingua franca by the end of their colonization. In contrast to the Spanish colonizers, the Americans could effectively plan and enforce LPP with ample supporting resources, leading to the widespread usefulness of English and a heightened interest in learning the language among indigenous populations. However, while English was broadly employed in the education system, indigenous languages were excluded and marginalized, a practice that persisted until the rule of the Commonwealth government (Sibayan, 1985 ).

The Commonwealth period, which appeared in the late period of American colonial rule, was a transitional period that lasted from 1935 to 1946, during which the United States granted the Philippines a degree of self-government. During the Commonwealth period, nationalism surged, and Tagalog was selected as the indigenous language to be developed as the national language. The LPP of the Commonwealth government embraced the ideology of vernacularization by formally integrating Tagalog into the education system and standardizing it as the national language. It is worth noting, however, that while Tagalog was promoted as the national language alongside English, the LPP did not support linguistic pluralism, resulting in inequality for other languages.

As nationalism and autonomy rose, the LPP in the Philippines underwent significant changes. Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy suggests that the ideology of vernacularization became dominant, and the LPP reflected this shift in perspective. The Commonwealth government oversaw two important events that influenced the LPP: the 1935 Constitution and the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945. The 1935 Constitution recognized Spanish and English as official languages but also initiated the development of a common language based on native languages. In 1939, Tagalog was officially promoted in schools, and by 1940, it was renamed and established as the national language through standardization. Despite these developments, Tagalog remained at a preliminary stage of development since it was not yet the MOI but was instead a subject taught in high school.

Japanese occupation period

In 1941, the Japanese occupied and governed the Philippines for ~3 years. During this short period, the Japanese government continued to pursue the ideology of vernacularization, as reflected in their LPP, which aimed to promote the development and widespread use of Tagalog. To limit Western influence and bolster Filipino nationalism, the Japanese enacted the 1943 Constitution , which designated Tagalog as the national language to be used in government affairs. This official support and promotion of Tagalog led to a period of significant linguistic growth and development. The LPP implemented by the Japanese raised Filipinos’ self-awareness and aimed to incorporate the Philippines into the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. Although the Japanese rulers sought to assimilate their colonies into Japan by promoting the use of the Japanese language and ethics through education, as Miller ( 1981 ) observed, the fundamental language situation had not undergone significant change when compared to the pre-occupation period (see Kaplan and Baldauf Jr, 2003 ). Under Japanese occupation, the LPP, particularly regarding the continuous promotion of Tagalog, was marked by assimilation. The rights of other indigenous languages were disregarded, as Tagalog, the only native language, was granted linguistic superiority despite not being fully standardized.

Post-independence period

After gaining independence, two influential policies were implemented in the Philippines: the Bilingual Education Policy (BEP) (1974) and the Mother Tongue-based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) policy (2009). During this period, Filipino was designated as the national language, and the educational system was expanded to include more local languages, with specific roles assigned to each. The language policies reflected a range of ideologies, which were evident in the LPP during this time.

LPP after independence and the Bilingual Education Policy

After World War II and attaining independence, Filipinos faced the complex issue of allocating and reallocating linguistic functions. With English serving as the academic language and Tagalog assuming the role of national identity, the country encountered significant challenges in rebuilding an educational system that had been all but destroyed. Years of neglect and marginalization of other vernaculars had resulted in ethnolinguistic rivalries and conflicts of linguistic interests. To construct a national identity, authorities renamed Tagalog as Filipino and prescribed it as the education system’s MOI, hoping to achieve assimilation and ethnic acceptance. However, this move to promote the Manila-centric language was met with resistance from people in some regions, who rejected the recruitment of Filipino as MOI in schools (Rappa and Wee, 2006 ; Tupas, 2015b ). The dissenting voices from various ethnolinguistic groups contributed to the inherent rivalries and prolonged the issue until the promulgation of the new constitution in 1973, which stipulated the replacement of Pilipino with a new language, Filipino, to represent all Filipinos.

In 1974, the authority implemented the BEP to reallocate the functions of English and Filipino as the MOI in different domains of education. Filipino was designated as the genuine national language, which is essentially based on Tagalog. The policy helped alleviate ethnolinguistic tensions and further bolstered the ideology of assimilation. People had more positive attitudes and stronger motivation to learn and use the language when it became popular in the media (Pascasio, 2003 ). The BEP was eventually institutionalized by implementing the 1987 Constitution , which established English and Filipino as the official languages. Through the BEP, media, and popular culture, Tagalog-based Filipino increasingly became accepted and prevailed throughout the country, achieving the aim of becoming a unifying force and a medium to express Filipinos’ national heritage, sentiments, and culture and consolidating its national language position as the most powerful and dominant language (Gonzalez, 1980 ; Pascasio, 1975 ; Tupas and Lorente, 2014 ). The BEP also allocated the auxiliary function as the MOI to regional languages. However, disadvantages, mainly in the BEP’s scholastic achievements and other vernaculars, emerged as it became increasingly and widely accepted (Yanagihara, 2007 ). Scholastic achievement rates in subjects taught in English were suboptimal, indicating that the language of instruction was the problem. The inability to use both languages led to poor school instruction results and provoked dissatisfaction from society and teachers (Jankowsky, 1985 ). The BEP was not abolished until 2009 when the authority developed a new language policy to replace it and raise education standards (Martin, 2020 ). The BEP was a significant component in the progress of LPP regarding Filipino, which featured both assimilation and vernacularization.

During the post-independence period and the implementation of the BEP, the LPP of the Philippines was characterized by the ideologies of assimilation, internationalization, and vernacularization (Tupas, 2015b ). The authority attempted to create a unified society that adopted Tagalog as the dominant language, but this process of assimilation and vernacularization differed from what had been proposed by Cobarrubias. In the Philippines, assimilation was driven by authority, motivated by nationalism and national construction, and achieved through legislation. Tagalog, during this period, transcended from being a regional language to a lingua franca, gaining wider prevalence and acceptance as Filipinos’ national language and identity. Meanwhile, with the emphasis on Tagalog, English as a non-native language was maintained and designated as the MOI in some subjects. The emphasis on English and related policies mandated reflects the ideology of internationalism. Adopting dual languages in the educational system by allocating them as MOI in different subjects reflects the ideology of linguistic pluralism.

Mother tongue-based multilingual education

In 2009, the MTB-MLE policy replaced the BEP to strengthen students’ cognitive and reasoning skills and their ability to operate different languages (DepEd, 2016 ). This policy changes the MOI and transfers the functions of languages, building a bridge between first and second languages. By focusing on cognitive development and using mother tongues in early education, the policy aims to improve language abilities and increase student achievement, thereby making up for the disadvantages left by the BEP (Burton, 2013 ; Dekker, 2010 ). The policy demands teaching learners their first language and recruiting languages to the education system. However, with over 180 languages in the country, it is impossible to thoroughly implement the policy due to the massive production of materials, training of teachers, management of resources, and sociocultural support required. In addition to the resource problem, the effects of the policy are also influenced by preference, attitude, and perception. For example, some parents may consider teaching vernaculars in school worthless as their children have already learned the language (Gallego and Zubiri, 2011 ). The policy’s success depends on gaining the support of immediate stakeholders and sociocultural support as it is a community-based program (Tupas, 2015a ). Furthermore, it is noteworthy that due to the hegemony of the official language, linguistic minority groups have long been marginalized, and MTB-MLE is an educational option made available to them. As of 2022, 19 major vernaculars have been identified as a learning subject (area), with their respective MOI.

The MTB-MLE policy grants official status to vernacular languages by incorporating them into the educational system and providing additional support materials. Indigenous languages are recognized as valuable and utilized as an MOI to enhance students’ cognitive development and academic achievements. Through the implementation of this policy, the ideologies of vernacularization and linguistic pluralism are demonstrated by promoting the development of more indigenous languages for use in the educational field. This creates a multilingual society where vernacular languages coexist with English and Tagalog, each serving a specific function in participating in national affairs.

Synthesis and discussion

Throughout the history of LPP in the Philippines, various ideologies identified by Cobarrubias ( 1983 ) have been evident, reflecting specific purposes that the government prioritized at the time of implementation. Since the Spanish colonial period, government authorities have promulgated numerous language policies, mainly reflecting the salient ideology of assimilation, albeit with different objectives. Despite efforts to spread Spanish, several factors impeded its diffusion among locals, such as the lack of consistency, ignorance, refusal of the friars to teach Spanish, and limited material support. Conversely, the Americans successfully disseminated English through the public educational system and comparatively productive investment of resources. As English emerged as the global lingua franca, Filipinos adopted a more favorable attitude towards learning the language.

Meanwhile, Tagalog experienced rapid development during the Commonwealth and Japanese occupation, fuelled by rising nationalism. Educational policy designated it as the only indigenous language to be taught, reflecting the ideology of vernacularization accompanying assimilation. Following independence, the government promoted Tagalog as the national language for nation-building, national identity, and unity (Gonzalez, 1991 ). Meanwhile, English was regarded as the language of modernization and education. Before promoting the mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) policy, indigenous languages had long been marginalized, with limited attention given to LPP efforts.

It is worth noting that most LPPs in the Philippines were implemented through legislative and administrative means and that different ideologies could coexist within LPPs. All LPPs were officially proposed and mandated by constitutions, decrees, or administrative orders. Five different constitutions—namely, the 1899 Constitution , the Commonwealth Constitution , the 1943 Constitution , the 1973 Constitution , and the 1987 Constitution —played a role in the implementation of LPP, all aiming to achieve the ideology of assimilation. However, the challenge of unifying distinct language groups into a single nation with a common national language was only tentatively resolved with the introduction of the Basic Education Program (BEP), which institutionalized a national language as a common medium of communication (Dawe, 2014 ). During the implementation of these constitutions, particular periods saw the coexistence of multiple ideologies. For instance, during the post-independence era, the consistent promotion of Tagalog/Filipino contributed to the language shift from vernacularization to assimilation. The government also showed an interest in internationalism and linguistic pluralism, as evidenced by adopting English as an official language and MOI for specific subjects. It should also be noted that the process of assimilation was achievable through legislation.

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) framework is generally regarded and used in the field of LPP as it provides a valuable framework for understanding different attitudes and beliefs toward language use and diversity. It has aided researchers and practitioners in understanding language planning’s complexity and breadth of applications. The four categories offer a helpful method for classifying various LPP ideologies, which can serve to direct policy creation and decision-making. Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy highlights the range of linguistic ideologies and how they influence linguistic practices. It also offers a practical framework for examining the intricate connections between language, culture, and society and emphasizes how crucial it is to support linguistic variety and language rights in our increasingly linked world.

Cobarrubias’s ( 1983 ) linguistic ideology taxonomy analyzes how linguistic ideology shapes language policies and practices in different contexts, which provides an adequate theoretical framework for sociolinguists and practitioners to analyze the causes, consequences, and necessity of LPP adopted by governments in different national conditions. However, this framework also has its limitations. Its four classifications are relatively simple and do not fully consider the complexity and dynamics of linguistic ideology and its relationship with social, cultural, political, and economic factors. For instance, in the implementation of MTB-MLE in the Philippines, which started in 2012, linguistic pluralism is the ideal situation. However, it is easier said than done. The current situation suggests acknowledging diversity has certain parameters, and some particularly minor languages could not be taught because of their limited resources. Therefore, a sub-category, “language sustainability,” may be added to the linguistic pluralism category.

Another example is that internationalization in the Philippines eventually ended up localizing the adopted language of wider communication. A nativized variety of English has emerged in the Philippines, and it is distinctively Filipino, and the Filipinos have claimed English as their own language because of this (cf. Borlongan, 2022 ). Therefore, it might be possible to include “localization” as an addition to the categories or, at the very least, as a by-product of internationalization.

LPPs are dynamic fields that continue to evolve, and new categories may emerge as our understanding of language ideologies and their implications expands. In order to advance with the times, Cobarrubias’s ( 1983 ) framework should be complemented with new categories or sub-categories through more nuanced and specific analyses, considering the dynamic and multilayered nature of linguistic ideology and its interaction with other social phenomena.

Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy of language ideologies provides a valuable framework for understanding the various approaches to LPP in the Philippines, which are influenced by different ideologies, including linguistic assimilation, vernacularization, linguistic pluralism, and internationalization.

Language assimilation ideology advocates the adoption of the dominant language in a society to achieve social integration and upward mobility. This concept has historically shown itself in the Philippines by promoting English as the language of education, government, and business. English has been considered a tool for accessing social and economic possibilities and a means of stratifying socioeconomic strata since the commencement of American colonization. English has also been utilized to attract foreign investment, create foreign cash, and maintain the country’s worldwide competitiveness. However, this concept has been criticized for its negative consequences on indigenous languages and cultures and for perpetuating colonial legacies.

Vernacularization ideology promotes using indigenous languages to maintain cultural identity and empower marginalized linguistic communities. In the Philippines, this ideology is reflected in the promotion of regional and national languages such as Tagalog, Bisaya, and Ilocano, which with the implementation of BEP and MTB-MLE, have become the MOI and the official language alongside English in Philippine schools. The practice addresses the country’s linguistic and cultural diversity and promotes social inclusion and language rights.

Linguistic pluralism emphasizes the necessity of appreciating linguistic variety within a country and promoting multilingualism in society. This idea is represented in the Philippines by recognizing multiple official languages, including English, Filipino, and the languages of minor regional islands. The philosophy emphasizes the importance of linguistic variety in conserving the country’s cultural legacy and achieving social fairness while simultaneously advocating bilingualism and multilingualism as functional abilities for Filipinos.

International ideology stresses the importance of promoting a globally relevant and helpful language. In the Philippines, this ideology is reflected in promoting English to gain global competitiveness and influence and facilitate international communication. This ideology recognizes the practical benefits of mastering a widely spoken language—English. However, it has also been criticized by some sociolinguists and nationalists who argue that the Philippine government perpetuates English-language imperialism and cultural hegemony by maintaining English as the official language and promoting English education.

Based on the analysis mentioned above, we find that legislation and administrative measures are integral to the process of linguistic assimilation, which has historically been the prevailing ideology underlying LPP in the Philippines. This finding aligns with some researchers’ findings (e.g., Faulk, 2020 ; Friedrich, 1989 ; Kang, 2012 ; Kroskrity, 2018 ; Reagan, 1986 ), suggesting that different language ideologies coexist and manifest simultaneously within a language policy or a society. We also assume that Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) framework might help analyze and improve LPP in other countries which face similar language situations as the Philippines, particularly in the context of neocolonialism and globalization. Another important finding in our study is that language ideologies in the Philippines changed across periods due to the different governing policies, economic and social development needs, and people’s language preferences. However, Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) taxonomy has several limitations, particularly in globalization, where postcolonial countries are thrust into a fiercely competitive global market for commodities, labor, and finance (Rassool, 2007 ; Reagan, 1986 ). Therefore, multilingual and multicultural countries must continuously adjust their LPP to enhance their ability to engage across borders and construct new global norms. This entails abandoning old identity politics and establishing pragmatic positions that leverage their multilingual and cultural resources to thrive in a globalized economy (Heller, 2006 ).

Implications for language policy and planning

After analyzing the language ideologies underlying the LPP in the Philippines within Cobarrubias’ ( 1983 ) framework, several implications regarding language planning, language maintenance, and national identity construction can be derived for countries facing a comparable language situation in the context of neocolonialism and globalization.

Language planning

Influenced by neocolonialism and globalization, the Philippines’ language planning prioritizes English and Filipino as the dominant languages, which has led to the marginalization of some islands’ indigenous languages. This preference reflects a linguistic ideology that prioritizes some languages over others, leading to the linguistic and cultural marginalization of minority groups. Countries facing similar language situations should consider the implications of prioritizing some languages over others in their language planning work. Multi-ethnic and multilingual countries should strive to formulate inclusive language policies, recognize and value their linguistic diversity, and promote equitable use of different languages. In order to meet the needs of international communication, countries should not only attach importance to the global lingua franca when formulating language education policies but also consider and respect the diversity of languages and cultures instead of pursuing monolingualism and monoculture.

Language maintenance

The dominant position of English and Filipino in the Philippines has caused a language shift and language extinction of its indigenous languages, culminating in the destruction of its linguistic and cultural variety. Countries confronting similar linguistic challenges, whether ex-colonial or not, should prioritize language preservation to guarantee that their minority languages are safeguarded and promoted alongside national and international languages. Rather than blindly worshipping or pursuing some so-called advanced languages and cultures. Language maintenance should be guided by an ideology that values and respects all languages and cultures in the country and recognizes the importance of linguistic diversity as a national asset.

National identity construction

LPP influences the construction of national identity. Promoting English and Filipino as dominant languages in the Philippines is linked to language promotion and global economic opportunities in Western countries, reflecting a linguistic ideology that prioritizes these languages as languages of prestige and power. This has implications for constructing people’s national identity in other countries, as it can marginalize one’s language and culture and form national identities influenced by external forces. Countries facing similar linguistic situations should seriously consider the impact of LPPS on the construction of national identity and strive to develop inclusive LPPS that recognize and promote their linguistic and cultural diversity. In the era of globalization, the construction of national identity is confronted with the impact of multiculturalism. While pursuing internationalization, special attention should be paid to protecting the country’s rich language and cultural property and promoting inclusiveness and social cohesion.

In conclusion, the language ideologies underlying LPP in the Philippines, in the context of neocolonialism and globalization, have implications for language planning, language maintenance, and national identity construction in countries facing similar language situations. These implications highlight the importance of inclusive language policies, language maintenance efforts, and national identity construction that value and respect linguistic diversity, promote empowerment of local communities, and strive for social inclusivity and cohesion.

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The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to the Humanities and Social Sciences Youth Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China as this paper was supported by it under the project “A dialectical study of English linguistic imperialism in the Philippines from the perspective of the Belt and Road Initiative”, Grant Number: 18YJC740006.

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IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM MANAGEMENT

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2015, Academic Journal of Accounting and Economics Researches

Language has great importance in the dialogue and understanding between tourists and tourist facilities. And the English today is international language, and most of the tourist establishments require employees to speak English in addition the local language of the country because the English now has become the familiar language for almost all human beings. There are a lot of institutes that give courses in language. As the tourism need to friction with foreigners directly so we will focus in this paper on the importance of the English language in the bi Sector Development. This paper also encourages practitioners to pay attention on the language issue. Collaboration among educational providers and tourism organizations is required if they want to compete in the global market.

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susan pennya

Asmik Avagyan

In terms of ongoing globalization and rapid development of the tourism industry in Russia it is especially important to analyze the role of specific skills required for effective work in the sphere of tourism. One of them is advanced communication skills in foreign languages. The present article aims to analyze the role of foreign languages in training of Bachelor students in tourism and offer possible ways of solving current problems connected with language skills of future tourism industry employees. The importance of this topic is explained by a growing role of foreign languages, especially English, in the professional activity of future tourism industry employees and a lack of language skills required by their prospective employers. Current problems connected with language training of Bachelor students in tourism are analyzed. A multi-faceted role of English as one of the most popular languages in the world is described in application to the tourism industry. The research method...

Tourism International Scientific Conference Vrnjačka Banja - TISC

Dragana D Nedeljkovic

Aleksandra Radovanović

As stated in the Strategy for Tourism Development in the period from 2016 to 2025, the development of efficient tourism policy includes the enhancement of the Republic of Serbia tourism products and services and the advancement of human resources and labor market. In this respect, the changing educational paradigm of the current subjects and courses could produce the favorable results. Starting from the premise that effective curricula design could lend itself to tourism development in Serbia, this paper focuses on the curriculum of English language taught at tertiary level of education. The insights obtained from the documents related to the topic, on one hand, and relevant literature on teaching methodology, on the other, provide the basis for this descriptive study. Its main objective is to propose an effective English language curriculum designed to contribute towards tourism development. The design has been described in terms of curriculum framework components and subprocesses, as suggested by relevant specialists.

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IMAGES

  1. Language of Tourism in English de Hall, Eugene J.

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

  2. Love the Philippines

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

  3. Language of Tourism in English de Hall, Eugene J.

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

  4. No, this is not a ‘viral sex video’ of a Philippine game show

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

  5. Diplomatic Network (ASIA) on LinkedIn: UN Tourism to host gastronomy

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

  6. Filipino students win at Global English Language Olympiad of Southeast Asia

    article about english language tourism in the philippines

VIDEO

  1. 30 Second Tagalog (Philippines) Language Lesson 🇵🇭

  2. Article Cuet English Language || Article English Language || By Amar Sir

  3. Your Language Guide in the Philippines

  4. Tourism expert: 'Love the Philippines' slogan 'underwhelming'

  5. Major Places Most Fluent in English Language in the Philippines

  6. The Tourism Decade

COMMENTS

  1. PH emerging as world's 'Study English' powerhouse: DOT exec

    "It was until 2010 when we actually formalize the inclusion of education tourism, and obviously included ESL (English as second language) as among the priority products of the Philippine tourism industry," Bengzon said in a press briefing on the sidelines of the 1st Philippine Education Tourism Conference (PETC) 2019 in Jpark Island Resort ...

  2. State of English in the Philippines: Should We Be Concerned?

    Nicholas Thomas, Country Director of the British Council Philippines, says that developing a wider knowledge of the English language is one of the British Council's founding purposes. "Part of our work is to share best practice in the teaching and learning of English with partner countries all over the world. English has a distinctive place ...

  3. Philippines uses ESL to boost tourism

    Philippines uses ESL to boost tourism. The Philippines is aiming to attract 4.5 million international tourists this year and part of its tactic is to use the 500 English language teaching centres around the country to bring in students through the ESL Tour Program. At least 30,000 students a year are known to study in the country. by Sara Custer.

  4. PDF Need Analysis: English Language Use by Students in the Tourism and

    3. To investigate the student's most problematic English language learning skills. 1.2 Research Questions The questions proposed in this study are: 1. What do students studying Tourism and the Hospitality Industry need to improve their English communication? 2. Which skills do the students need when using the English language in their field ...

  5. The Philippines: Emerging From a Sea of Language Learning ...

    Deslorieux works in language schools and with private clients, teaching classes such as general English, English for tourism or marketing, and test preparation (e.g., for IELTS and Cambridge exams). ... In an April 2020 article, Philippine higher learning institute Enderun published a list of recommended countries to teach English abroad for ...

  6. PDF The Good and the Bad: The Social Role and Position of English in the

    English is a relatively new institutionalized language in the Philippines. It has only been around since the 1900s with its introduction by our American colonizers. Through the Americans' implementation of a mass education program throughout the Philippines, English came to be used by Filipinos in all levels of their schooling as the

  7. PDF Tourism in the Philippines Through the Gaze of Communities ...

    The tourist gaze is subjective and shaped by environmental forces, social factors, personal factors, and tourism con-texts (Urry, 1990, 2002), influencing the creation of tourist experiences. Previous studies have linked aspects of a hospitable experience to Filipino cul-ture (e.g., Capistrano & Weaver, 2017, 2018).

  8. DOT promotes ESL as key PH tourism product

    MANILA - The Department of Tourism (DOT) is strengthening its promotion of the country through the 2nd Hybrid Philippine Education Tourism Conference (PETC) that will be held in Clark, Pampanga on January 26-27.. Led by the DOT through its Office of Product and Market Development, the two-day conference aims to further develop English as a Second Language (ESL), considered as the country's ...

  9. English Please! The Prospect of ESL in development of Education Tourism

    The Prospect of ESL in the Development of Education Tourism in the Philippines English as Second Language (ESL) Tourism is the most common form of Education Tourism in the Philippines. It is, as defined by Richard Norquist, a rethoric and English professor in Southern Georgia University, a traditional term for the use or study of the English ...

  10. Philippine English in retrospect and prospect

    About a hundred wide-eyed Filipino teachers, who grew up believing that only American English existed, were never the same again. This contribution to a special issue in honor of Braj Kachru is an expression of utang na loob, our debt of gratitude to him for changing the course of English language studies and scholarship in the Philippines.

  11. DOT to hold 2-day conference on English as Second Language (ESL)

    The Department of Tourism (DOT) strengthens its promotion of the country through the 2nd Hybrid Philippine Education Tourism Conference (PETC) happening from January 26-27, 2022 in Clark, Pampanga. ... (OPMD), the two-day conference aims to further develop English as Second Language (ESL) which is considered as the country's key education ...

  12. Exploring Language in the Philippines: A Guide

    Filipino, also known as Tagalog, is the Philippines' official language. It unites the nation's diverse ethnic groups. With over 24 million speakers, it molds the country's identity and is the main language in schools. Originating from Central Luzon, Tagalog is spoken and understood across the Philippines.

  13. English Language Proficiency in the Philippines: An Overview

    of 850 in the metric, while the average English proficiency score of a Philippine college graduate was only 631.4, based on the. me trics of the Test of English for International Communication ...

  14. Know before you go: the Philippines

    Language and culture Filipino and English are the official languages of the Philippines — but the Philippines is an ethnically diverse country (and was a Spanish colony for 300 years), so more ...

  15. Needs Analysis on English Language Use in Tourism Industry

    Needs analysis plays a vital role in developing English for specific purposes curriculum. This study surveyed the needs, functions and problems of English language use by 40 tourism employees. A questionnaire was used and data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Findings revealed that speaking is most important ...

  16. Cultural Tourism Development in the Philippines: An Analysis of

    Using this as a framework, this study explores the status of Philippine cultural tourism and assesses the challenges and orientations that pervade in its practice, which could be developed to attain the country's developmental goals. This study proposes feasible action plans that could be taken to address the identified challenges that center ...

  17. Ideologies underlying language policy and planning in the Philippines

    The English language, imported from American colonizers, achieved assimilation and internationalism through their LPP. ... Zhou Z, Li S, Sun Z, Wang L (2015) Study on Philippine language policy ...

  18. Foregrounding Philippine Englishes in fostering linguistic equality

    It presents glimpses of unequal PhEs through illustrations from a study on how English language teaching is conducted in the context of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education Policy in six public elementary schools in the Visayas and Mindanao and an analysis of the current K to 12 Curriculum in English.

  19. The Power of Language: The Persuasiveness Used in Selected Philippines

    Linguistic features of tourism brochures can describe the distinctive ways of expressing persuasiveness in advertising which have a significant impact on teaching English as a foreign or second ...

  20. PDF An Analysis of The English Language Skills Needs and Problems Among the

    Batangas Province is known as one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Philippines. It is home to many beaches, diving spots and varied tourist attractions. This makes Batangas a haven for hotels, restaurant, and tour services as it is frequently visited by local and ... Analysis of English Language Needs for Thai Airways Ground ...

  21. IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS IN THE TOURISM SECTOR

    1. Abstract. Language remains the most potent vehi cle for human communication. It is quite obvious that. high level of language literacy in English, French and other languages of international ...

  22. (Pdf) Importance of English Language in The Development of Tourism

    The study aimed at exploring tourists' perception of using the English language in the tourism industry. The subjects were 126 tourists participating in the study including (53.2%) male and (46.8%) female tourists. Questionnaires were mailed to the respondents to collect data. The questionnaire was self-developed with a (.935) Cronbach's alpha.

  23. PDF Performance of Senior Tourism Students in Using Foreign Language

    College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City 4200 PHILIPPINES Abstract - The study generally intended to reckon the previous and present condition of senior tourism students with regards on their foreign language class. Specifically, it described the profile